What are plate
Tetons? Plate tectonics is a concept in which the Earth’s surface is divided
into numerous plates that glide over the mantle. A mantle is a gravel inner
layer above the earth’s core. Plate tectonics helps to explain how earthquakes,
volcanoes, mountains, and continents are formed. There are three kinds of plate
boundaries, divergent, convergent, and transform.
A divergent boundary
is when plates getting pulled apart from each other. Example, Red Sea basin.
There are spreading centers along this plate. Spreading center is an area where
new crust is formed, where two crustal plates are moving. Example, mid-oceanic
ridge. Continental rifting happens when divergent boundaries procedure inside continental
landmasses. When this happens usually large lakes, rivers, and beaches are the
result. Crustal extension also occurs in a divergent plate. Crustal extension
is where divergent plate forms under a continual landmass. A convergent
boundary is when plates are being pushed together. Example, Andes Mountains.
Transform boundary is two plates passing by each other. Example, San Andreas
There are three
different types of convergent plate boundaries, OC/CC, OC/OC, CC/CC. Subduction
of ocean crust beneath continental crust (OC/CC), this area is denser and has
thinner ocean crust which is subducted under less dense continental crust. Deep
and shallow tsunami are usually produced as well as explosive volcanoes in this
area. Example, Andes in South America. Subduction of ocean crust beneath ocean
crust (OC/OC), this area is denser, cooler, and older. Cooler ocean crust is
subducted under less dense, younger, and warm ocean crusts. Deep and shallow tsunami
and volcanoes are not as explosive as OC/CC. Example, Aleutian Islands
(Alaska). Continental Collisions (CS/CS), neither of continental crusts are
subducted. This area is where large mountains are formed. Example, Himalayas.
hotspots in the earth’s upper mantle that has very hot magma. Hotspots underneath
the earth’s lithosphere which are caused by plumes rising. Example, Hawaii and Yellowstone
National Park. Some hotspots can remain in the same place for 10 million years.
They can also happen underneath any type of crustal.
How are plates
moved? According to researchers, the convective flow in the earth’s mantle is
the basic force which moves the plate tectonics. There are three forces which
drive the plate motion. Slab-pull, this is the slow pull of mantle from a high
location to a low sinking location. Slab-suction, high density of cold ocean
crust that is sinking into mantle, which pulls crust along with it. Ridge-push,
warm new ocean crust rises above the ocean floor while pushing cooler older
crust away. Because of the plate tectonics theory, we are able to under and
explain earth’s big processes. Continental Accretion is when material is added
to plate tectonic plate. Baja California, part of the southern San Andreas Fault
is being torn away from North America continent. California is the most studied
region due its subduction zone activity and earthquakes. California
transitioned from an inactive margin to an active boundary with the transition
to subduction zone.