What being passed down in families? Background:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What is the probability of mental illness being passed down
in families?

Background:

            Mental illness can be defined as a
wide range of conditions that affect mood, thinking and behavior. It can be
caused due to any type of distress, most frequently in the workplace and in
family life. Mental illness is common throughout the Unites States with nearly
19% of people having some form of the disease and 24% having a serious form of
the disease. But, what percent of these people are from the same family line?
Do people who have mental illness in their family have a higher chance of
having it too?

            In this investigation, I will
examine the probability that someone with mental illness in their family will
inherit the disease compared to the probability that someone without known
mental illness in their family will inherit the disease. Specifically, I will
be looking into mental illnesses such as bipolar disease and Schizophrenia.
Using conditional probability is the most effective way to uncover the answer
to this question.

            I chose to investigate this question
because I feel as if mental illness is becoming more and more prevalent in
today’s society. Also, I am interested in determining probabilities so I
combined it with mental illness to create this topic. It will be interesting to
analyze whether or not mental illness is genetic.

 

Introduction:

            Conditional probability is the
probability that the event (A), given that the other event (B) has already
occurred. This relates to mental illness because the investigation is studying if
it is hereditary (A), and the probability of an event (B), passing down the
gene? The formula for conditional probability is P(B/A) = P(A and B)/ P(A). The
mental illnesses that will first be studied are Schizophrenia, depression and
bipolar disease. The formula for conditional probability will be used to
determine the probability that these particular mental illnesses are passed
down through families.

 

Table 1

“Inheriting
Mental Disorders.” HealthyChildren.org,
www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/emotional-problems/Pages/Inheriting-Mental-Disorders.aspx.

 

This
image shows the genetic effects that mental illness can have on a family.

 

 

            Schizophrenia is a disorder that
affects the ability to think, feel, and behave clearly. It is estimated that up
to 80% of people with Schizophrenia pass the disorder down to their children. 1
By using the formula for conditional probability, a conclusion will be reached.
Schizophrenia is one of the many mental illnesses that have seen signs of
hereditability. With research and calculations, the probability of mental
illness will be found in this investigation.

            The most common mental illness is
depression. But, is depression hereditary? Finding out the answer to this
question could help prevention care in young children before the illness
develops. Because it is so common, knowing if depression is hereditary could
reduce the number of people in the world who suffer from this mental illness.
Research will be conducted to determine the answer to this hypothesis.

 

Investigation:

            Schizophrenia and Bipolar disease
are considered to be the most hereditary mental illnesses.2
The probability of a person having schizophrenia in the USA is 1%; the
probability of inheriting Schizophrenia is 13% and increases with each family
member that develops the disease.

P(B/A) =
P(A and B)/ P(A)

P(13/1) =
P(.01 and .13)/ P(.01)

Table 2

Schizophrenia.com – Schizophrenia Genetics and Heredity, www.schizophrenia.com/research/hereditygen.htm.

 

This graph shows the risk of
developing schizophrenia based on the relationship to the affected patient.

 

 

            Bipolar disorder is more commonly
known throughout the world with it affecting 2.6% of the United States
population. If a parent has the disease, the chance of their child inheriting
the disorder is 10-25%; the probability of inheriting the disorder if both of
the child’s parents are affected is 10-50%.

P(B/A) =
P(A and B)/ P(A)

P(.10-.25/.026)/
P(.026)

P(.10-.50/.026)/
P(.026)

            Scientists have uncovered that there
is a strong possibility that a child will develop Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder.
Does the same go for depression, the most common mental illness in the world? 6.9%
of the population in the United States claim to have experienced some kind of
depressive episode. But, there is no significant evidence proving that
depression can/could be genetic.

            However, major depressive disorder
has been proven to be common and moderately heritable.3
Greatest familial risk is most associated with cases with onset at an early age
and recurrence.4

 

 

 

 

Table 3

kbolinsky
Follow. “Psychological Disorders.” LinkedIn
SlideShare, 8 Apr. 2015,
www.slideshare.net/kbolinsky/psychological-disorders-46790622.

 

This
graph shows the estimated the heritability of many mental illnesses, including
depression.

The American Journal of Psychology conducted a research
study of the genetic epidemiology of depression. Five families were studied and
the conclusions were that depression is a familial disorder and a mixture
between genetic and cultural influences are both factors in causing major
depression.5

 

Conclusion:

            In conclusion, these mental
disorders can be clearly seen as hereditary. Through the use of conditional
probability and studies supporting the fact, depression and other mental
illnesses can be diagnosed as hereditary. Although there is slight evidence that
there is not a correlation between familial connections and major depressive
disorders, the majority of the sources argue that there is in fact a
connection.

 

(more)

 

 

Works
Cited:

1.     
Consortium,
International Schizophrenia. “Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of
schizophrenia that overlaps with bipolar disorder.” Nature, U.S.
National Library of Medicine, 6 Aug. 2009,
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3912837/.

2.      Baron, M, et al. “Genetic linkage in mental illness.
Limitations and prospects.” The British Journal of Psychiatry, The Royal
College of Psychiatrists, 1 Nov. 1990,
bjp.rcpsych.org/content/157/5/645.full-text.pdf html.

3.     
Schizophrenia.com –
Schizophrenia Genetics and Heredity,
www.schizophrenia.com/research/hereditygen.htm.

4.     
“Inheriting Mental
Disorders.” HealthyChildren.org,
www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/emotional-problems/Pages/Inheriting-Mental-Disorders.aspx.

5.     
“Genetic Epidemiology
of Major Depression: Review and Meta-Analysis.” American Journal of
Psychiatry, ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.10.1552.

6.     
“The Genetics of
Depression: A Review.” Biological Psychiatry, Elsevier, 21 Nov. 2005,
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006322305010139.

 

 

 

 

 

1 Consortium,
International Schizophrenia. “Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of
schizophrenia that overlaps with bipolar disorder.” Nature, U.S. National
Library of Medicine, 6 Aug. 2009,
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3912837/.

2
Baron, M, et al. “Genetic linkage in mental
illness. Limitations and prospects.” The British Journal of Psychiatry,
The Royal College of Psychiatrists, 1 Nov. 1990,
bjp.rcpsych.org/content/157/5/645.full-text.pdf html.

 

 

3 “The Genetics
of Depression: A Review.” Biological Psychiatry, Elsevier, 21 Nov. 2005,
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006322305010139.

4 “The Genetics
of Depression: A Review.” Biological Psychiatry, Elsevier, 21 Nov. 2005,
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006322305010139.

 

5 “Genetic
Epidemiology of Major Depression: Review and Meta-Analysis.” American
Journal of Psychiatry, ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.10.1552.

 

 

 

What is the probability of mental illness being passed down
in families?

Background:

            Mental illness can be defined as a
wide range of conditions that affect mood, thinking and behavior. It can be
caused due to any type of distress, most frequently in the workplace and in
family life. Mental illness is common throughout the Unites States with nearly
19% of people having some form of the disease and 24% having a serious form of
the disease. But, what percent of these people are from the same family line?
Do people who have mental illness in their family have a higher chance of
having it too?

            In this investigation, I will
examine the probability that someone with mental illness in their family will
inherit the disease compared to the probability that someone without known
mental illness in their family will inherit the disease. Specifically, I will
be looking into mental illnesses such as bipolar disease and Schizophrenia.
Using conditional probability is the most effective way to uncover the answer
to this question.

            I chose to investigate this question
because I feel as if mental illness is becoming more and more prevalent in
today’s society. Also, I am interested in determining probabilities so I
combined it with mental illness to create this topic. It will be interesting to
analyze whether or not mental illness is genetic.

 

Introduction:

            Conditional probability is the
probability that the event (A), given that the other event (B) has already
occurred. This relates to mental illness because the investigation is studying if
it is hereditary (A), and the probability of an event (B), passing down the
gene? The formula for conditional probability is P(B/A) = P(A and B)/ P(A). The
mental illnesses that will first be studied are Schizophrenia, depression and
bipolar disease. The formula for conditional probability will be used to
determine the probability that these particular mental illnesses are passed
down through families.

 

Table 1

“Inheriting
Mental Disorders.” HealthyChildren.org,
www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/emotional-problems/Pages/Inheriting-Mental-Disorders.aspx.

 

This
image shows the genetic effects that mental illness can have on a family.

 

 

            Schizophrenia is a disorder that
affects the ability to think, feel, and behave clearly. It is estimated that up
to 80% of people with Schizophrenia pass the disorder down to their children. 1
By using the formula for conditional probability, a conclusion will be reached.
Schizophrenia is one of the many mental illnesses that have seen signs of
hereditability. With research and calculations, the probability of mental
illness will be found in this investigation.

            The most common mental illness is
depression. But, is depression hereditary? Finding out the answer to this
question could help prevention care in young children before the illness
develops. Because it is so common, knowing if depression is hereditary could
reduce the number of people in the world who suffer from this mental illness.
Research will be conducted to determine the answer to this hypothesis.

 

Investigation:

            Schizophrenia and Bipolar disease
are considered to be the most hereditary mental illnesses.2
The probability of a person having schizophrenia in the USA is 1%; the
probability of inheriting Schizophrenia is 13% and increases with each family
member that develops the disease.

P(B/A) =
P(A and B)/ P(A)

P(13/1) =
P(.01 and .13)/ P(.01)

Table 2

Schizophrenia.com – Schizophrenia Genetics and Heredity, www.schizophrenia.com/research/hereditygen.htm.

 

This graph shows the risk of
developing schizophrenia based on the relationship to the affected patient.

 

 

            Bipolar disorder is more commonly
known throughout the world with it affecting 2.6% of the United States
population. If a parent has the disease, the chance of their child inheriting
the disorder is 10-25%; the probability of inheriting the disorder if both of
the child’s parents are affected is 10-50%.

P(B/A) =
P(A and B)/ P(A)

P(.10-.25/.026)/
P(.026)

P(.10-.50/.026)/
P(.026)

            Scientists have uncovered that there
is a strong possibility that a child will develop Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder.
Does the same go for depression, the most common mental illness in the world? 6.9%
of the population in the United States claim to have experienced some kind of
depressive episode. But, there is no significant evidence proving that
depression can/could be genetic.

            However, major depressive disorder
has been proven to be common and moderately heritable.3
Greatest familial risk is most associated with cases with onset at an early age
and recurrence.4

 

 

 

 

Table 3

kbolinsky
Follow. “Psychological Disorders.” LinkedIn
SlideShare, 8 Apr. 2015,
www.slideshare.net/kbolinsky/psychological-disorders-46790622.

 

This
graph shows the estimated the heritability of many mental illnesses, including
depression.

The American Journal of Psychology conducted a research
study of the genetic epidemiology of depression. Five families were studied and
the conclusions were that depression is a familial disorder and a mixture
between genetic and cultural influences are both factors in causing major
depression.5

 

Conclusion:

            In conclusion, these mental
disorders can be clearly seen as hereditary. Through the use of conditional
probability and studies supporting the fact, depression and other mental
illnesses can be diagnosed as hereditary. Although there is slight evidence that
there is not a correlation between familial connections and major depressive
disorders, the majority of the sources argue that there is in fact a
connection.

 

(more)

 

 

Works
Cited:

1.     
Consortium,
International Schizophrenia. “Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of
schizophrenia that overlaps with bipolar disorder.” Nature, U.S.
National Library of Medicine, 6 Aug. 2009,
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3912837/.

2.      Baron, M, et al. “Genetic linkage in mental illness.
Limitations and prospects.” The British Journal of Psychiatry, The Royal
College of Psychiatrists, 1 Nov. 1990,
bjp.rcpsych.org/content/157/5/645.full-text.pdf html.

3.     
Schizophrenia.com –
Schizophrenia Genetics and Heredity,
www.schizophrenia.com/research/hereditygen.htm.

4.     
“Inheriting Mental
Disorders.” HealthyChildren.org,
www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/emotional-problems/Pages/Inheriting-Mental-Disorders.aspx.

5.     
“Genetic Epidemiology
of Major Depression: Review and Meta-Analysis.” American Journal of
Psychiatry, ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.10.1552.

6.     
“The Genetics of
Depression: A Review.” Biological Psychiatry, Elsevier, 21 Nov. 2005,
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006322305010139.

 

 

 

 

 

1 Consortium,
International Schizophrenia. “Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of
schizophrenia that overlaps with bipolar disorder.” Nature, U.S. National
Library of Medicine, 6 Aug. 2009,
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3912837/.

2
Baron, M, et al. “Genetic linkage in mental
illness. Limitations and prospects.” The British Journal of Psychiatry,
The Royal College of Psychiatrists, 1 Nov. 1990,
bjp.rcpsych.org/content/157/5/645.full-text.pdf html.

 

 

3 “The Genetics
of Depression: A Review.” Biological Psychiatry, Elsevier, 21 Nov. 2005,
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006322305010139.

4 “The Genetics
of Depression: A Review.” Biological Psychiatry, Elsevier, 21 Nov. 2005,
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006322305010139.

 

5 “Genetic
Epidemiology of Major Depression: Review and Meta-Analysis.” American
Journal of Psychiatry, ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.10.1552.