The society economy. This essay will discuss

The
need for more space to develop resources in order to support the world growth
has lead to deforestation. Deforestation is an activity of cutting, clearing
and destroying all the trees in particular area. Deforestation has been done
for some reasons whether it was done legally or illegally. This activity has occurred
due to the growing in population, so people need more agricultural land for the
industrial activity and to support country and society economy. This essay will
discuss the causes and effects of deforestation.

One
of the common causes of deforestation is the development of agriculture.

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Agricultural activities have biggest influence in deforestation as the
population keeps on increasing by years and demand for food are growing
(Pakenham, 2005). This situation has led people to cut down trees and clear the
forests area to provide land for growing crops and raising livestock, so it
will meet people’s daily needs. The trees have been cleared by the farmers
using slash and burn technique because it can be done quickly (Stenstrup,
2009). For example, the Mayan civilization has developed a complex agricultural
system to support their population. This system has collapsed as the demand for
food, land and fuel increasing (Pakenham, 2005). Agricultural land also been
used for road development and agricultural businesses such as commercial crops
(McLeish, 2007). Roads were provided for entering the remote areas for
transferring goods. For instance, Indonesia is focusing on producing bio-fuels
and palm tree productions, so they have changed the tropical forests to commercial
palm tree plantations (Lindsey, 2007). South America and Africa and
South East Asia have converted 13 million hectare of forest per year for
agriculture land (Conserve Energy Future, 2013). Half of the world’s tropical forests
have already been cleared to provide agricultural land.

Another
cause of deforestation is economic pressure. One of the factors that be
included in economic pressure is trees were destroyed for economic survival
(Golden and Miller, 1998). This is because there are no alternatives jobs for
loggers. They remove the trees to gain extra money to support their life
because it was hard to find work and get paid. For example, Golden and Miller
(1998) have reported that a man has deforested more than 100 hectares in the Guatemalan
rain forest for cutting down mahogany trees. It was the only source for him to
earn money and provide basic needs for his family. Second, there are some countries
have borrowed money from other foreign country that more richer (Stenstrup,
2009). The countries are not able to pay the debt because they owe a large
amount of foreign debt, so they decided to clear the forests for crop
production that can be exported to another country. For example, Brazil has cleared its rainforest
for crops such as timber, beef and soya to increase their international exports
(McLeish, 2007). Since Brazil has a huge foreign debt, more than half of their
earnings in
export are used to pay the debt. Each country needs to find an alternative way to
obtain money instead of diminishing the forests. There will be no forests on
earth for the future generation if countries keep on clearing it because tropical
forests only have a small percentage in this whole world.

The
causes of deforestation which is development of agriculture and economic
pressure has lead to several effects which is not only affects the people, but plants,
animals and environment. These effects has negative impacts especially on land
and biodiversity.

Deforestation
has many effects toward the
environment, and one of the impact is on land. The biggest problem will
be faced after deforestation is soil erosion (Lindsey, 2007). The soil was
attached by the tree roots, so without it the soil was easily eroded as the nutrients
content is lost. The erosion is getting higher and the loss of nutrient
provided by living plants are
the consequences of slash and burn method. Soil erosion was caused by
planting commercial crops like palm oil because the soil cannot hold onto the
roots. Besides soil erosion, landslides and flooding occurred because of the same reasons.

The soil became compacted when the area has turned into cattle grazing, and it
will be hard to recover the forests. For example, soil erosion has reduced the
crop harvests during the Maya civilization because the soil had been washed
away from the hills. The wars for food between the Mayas began because of the
loss of food production, and death rates were very high (Pakenham, 2005). Infertile
soil will cause eco-system become worst that can affects animals and plants who
live in the forests and their habitats. 

Another
effect of deforestation is it harms the biodiversity (Lindsey, 2007). Tropical
rainforests are home to much of the world’s biodiversity. Based on National
Geographic (2009), around seventy and eighty percent of the world’s plants and animals live in the
forests. Deforestation which is massive destruction of forests has caused the
loss of their habitats, and it is hard for them to survive (Bradford, 2015). Because their habitats have been destroyed,
it will lead to the extinction of the species (Pakenham, 2005). The extinction
rate was expected to rise between 7000 and 27000 species a year that has been
suggested by World Research Institute (1993) in Pakenham (2005). To illustrate,
tigers have lost 93% of their historical range because their habitat has been
destroyed to clear the trees for agriculture (WWF, 2018). The negative impact
of extinction is the loss
of beneficial medical plants as deforestation kills off plants that promise
cures for countless disease (Golden and Miller 1998). For example, Wilson
(1989) has cited in Pakenham (2005), a small plant native to Madagascar called
Catharanthus roseus has medical properties as it was very effective in the
treatment of cancer. One of the five other species of Catharanthus was very
close to extinction because its habitat was threatened by deforestation. President
Ramiro de Leon Carpio of neighbouring Guatemala has said, “If we fail to
preserve the rain forests, more people will die than have perished in world wars..”
(Golden and Miller, 1998, p. 16). The last couple of decades, our world has
lost so many species of plants and animals because of deforestation (Conserve
Energy Future, 2013).

To
conclude, deforestation is an important issue that need to be prevented. It was
a huge concern nowadays since the number of trees were cut down rises. It
happened due to the growth in population, and the need of people to provide
agricultural land for economic survival. Deforestation has caused fewer trees
to grow, so it leads to soil erosion as there are no nutrients provided and the
loss of habitats that caused species to become extinct. Deforestation is a part of people’s action, so people are responsible to
prevent what have they done, and find solutions to save the world.