The present cross-sectional study was conducted
in an outpatient setting at the Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and
Research Centre, Bangalore, India between February 2016 and November 2017.
Informed consent was obtained from the participants, and the study design was
approved by the Vydehi Institutional Ethics Committee. Consecutive participants
aged > 18 or 15
volts was considered abnormal. 21
DPN was defined as any of the following: (i)
modified NDS ? 6, (ii) NDS ? 3 or 15.
OGTT was carried out in
the morning (7:00 A.M. to 11:00 A.M.) after a 10-hour overnight fast.
Participants were asked to avoid heavy physical activity on the day before
examination and to refrain from smoking before and during the test. Fasting
venous blood glucose was sampled, and 75-g anhydrous glucose was then given,
and second sample was drawn two hours after ingestion. Fasting samples for
glycated hemoglobin, lipids, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and
vitamin B12 were also collected and analyzed using a fully automated Beckman
Coulter DXC 860i Auto Analyzer (Beckman Coulter, California, USA).
2.2. Statistical analyses
All statistical analyses were performed using
SPSS version 23.0. Data are presented as mean ± SD for continuous variables and
as percentages for categorical variables. Between-group comparisons were
performed using the student’s t-test for continuous data and the chi-squared
test for categorical data. Pearson’s or Spearman’s correlation coefficient was
computed to evaluate the relationship between the variables. Univariate and
multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the
relationships between the presence of DPN and various demographic/lifestyle
factors (namely, age, sex, BMI, and smoking habits) and biochemical parameters
(namely, FPG, HbA1c, hemoglobin, serum TSH, vitamin B12, and lipid components).
Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were
estimated via logistic regression analyses. Statistical significance was set at