The 166 cm; width: cm. Material: Limestone.

The False door described in the following pages is housed in
the Egyptian
Museum
in Tahrir Square, it is known in it as (CG 1397) from the publication of
Borchardt,
L., Denkmäler des Alten Reiches (Ausser den statuen) im Museum von
Kairo,
vol. I, Berlin, 1937.
The
provenance of this Stela is Saqqara.
Dimensions:
Height: 166 cm; width: cm.
Material:
Limestone.
Shape:
Rectangular False door.
Method:
incised.
Colours:
No traces of colours are found.
The
stela is in a good state of preservation, it displays the usual elements of
a
typical false door of late old kingdom design. Texts and figures are incised (1).
The
edges of the False door displaying the usual cavetto cornice(2) and is
framed
on either side by a torus moulding(3) which
represent the original fibrous
binding.
The
false door consists of a lintel above the central niche, window-shutter
panel,
drum, upper lintel, two outer jambs and two inner jambs.
(1)
The incised relief began to be used for decorating the false doors in Saqqara
by the time of
Neuserre
at least and gradually became the predominent form by the end of the fifth
dynasty.
El-Khadragy,
M., Two Old Kingdom false doors from Saqqara, in: GM 174, 2000, p. 43.
(2)
Which is decorated with incised palm leaves.
(3)
Wiebach, S., False Door, in: The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, vol. I,
Oxford,
2001,
p. 499; The false door with torus moulding and corniches appears at Saqqara –
where
this
false door was discovered – in the early fifth dynasty.
Strudwick,
N., The Administration of Egypt in the Old Kingdom, The Highest Titles and
their
Holders, London, 1985, p. 10; Wiebach, S., Die Ägyptische Scheintür, HÄS 1,
Hamburg,
1981, p. 134.
The
upper lintel is inscribed with a single hieroglyphic horizontal
inscription,
the lower-framing line of inscriptions delineates the lintel from the
jambs.
Each
of the jambs has at the end of its inscriptions a representation of the
deceased
standing facing towards the central niche, on the outer jambs the
deceased
is representing wearing a shoulder-length wig covering his ear, a
ceremonial
beard and a pointed kilt, he holds a long staff in one hand and a baton
in
the other hand.
While
the inner jambs display mirror images of the deceased who appears in
a
corpulent figure showing probably a later phase in his life, he is represented
with
short
hair wearing a long skirt and a broad collar or ribbon and his breasts are
flabby.
Each
of the outer jambs is inscribed with a single hieroglyphic inscription,
while
the left inner jamb is inscribed with three horizontal inscriptions
representing
a
title of the deceased and his name, on the other hand the right inner jamb is
inscribed
with two vertical inscriptions representing also a title of the deceased and
his
name. The drum and the central niche are undecorated(1).
The
lower lintel above the drum has a short hieroglyphic inscription naming
a
title of the deceased and his name.
The
window-shutter panel displays the usual funerary meal with the
deceased
sitting on the left on a law back chair with the back stand visible under
the
cushion, the rear of the seat ends in the shape of a lotus flower and the
seat’s
legs
are carved to resemble lion legs. He is facing right wearing an attire similar
to
that
worn by the figures on the outer jambs also wearing a shoulder-length wig, a
(1)
Harpur, Y., Decoration in Egyptian Tombs of the Old Kingdom, London and New
York,
1987,
p. 48.
broad
collar and a knee-length kilt(1), his left
hand clapsed to the chest while his
right
hand extends towards an offering stand(2).
The
offering stand is supported by a forked pedestal and loaded with bread
slices
which are simplified in a rectangular shape with the two bottom corners cut
away
to resemble the lower parts of reed-shaped bread slices(3).
Beneath
the stand to the left rested directly a large nested ewer where the
ewer’s
spout is depicted towards the deceased’s face with basin on a short stand
and
next to that stand to the left also and infront of the deceased is a large
offering
table
surmounted with different kinds of bread, a foreleg of beef, a trussed duck
and
a bundle of lettuce.
Above
the offering table is an ideographic offering list oriented to the left
towards
the deceased signifying that it is addressed to him(4).
The
Text:
The Upper Lintel:
Htp-di-nsw Inpw tpy Dw.f prt-xrw n Xry-tp nswt mTw
An offering which the king gives and Anubis, who is upon his mountain, a
voice
offering
to royal chamberlain(5) mTw.
(1)
Staehelin, E., Untersuchungen zur agyptischen Tracht im Alten Reich, MÄS 8,
Berlin, 1966,
pl.
XXI, fig. 10.
(2)
Hassan, S., Excavations at Giza, vol. V, Cairo, 1944, pp. 171-172.
(3)
Strudwick, N., op. cit., p. 19.
(4)
Fischer, H., Egyptian Studies II, The Orientation of Hieroglyphs: Reversals,
The
Metropolitan
Museum of Art, New York, 1977, pp. 63-65.
(5)
Jones, D., An Index of Ancient Egyptian Titles, Epithets and phrases of the Old
Kingdom,
vol.
II, Oxford, 2000, p. 788:2874.
Left
outer jamb:
Xry-tp nswt sS a nswt mTw
royal chamberlain (and) scribe of the royal documents(1) mTw.
Right
outer jamb:
Imy-r wp(w)t Htp(w)t-nTr mTw
Overseer of the divisions of divine offerings(2) mTw.
(1)
Ibid., vol. II, p. 838: 3057.
(2)
Jones, D., op.cit., vol. I, p. 97 : 402.
Lower
lintel:
sAb imy-r sSw mTw
Juridical overseer of scribes(1) mTw.
Left
inner jamb:
sS a nswt xft-Hr mTw
scribe of the royal records in the presence(2) mTw.
Right
inner jamb:
sAb imy-r sSw mTw
Juridical overseer of scribes mTw.
(1)
Ibid., vol. II, p. 803:2933.
(2)
Ibid., vol. II, p. 839:3063.
Panel:
Htp-di-nsw prt-xrw n Xry-tp nswt mTw
An offering which the king gives, a voice offering to royal chamberlain mTw.
Comments:
(1) The name of mTw (stela’s
owner) is known as a male name according to
Ranke
since the old kingdom, but he mentioned only one example for this
name
which is the owner of the present stela(1), but he had
mentioned that
the
feminine form of the name which is mTwt was also a
feminine
name in the old kingdom(2).
(2)
The stela beared five titles which are Xry-tp nswt, sS a nswt, imy-r wp(w)t
Htp(w)t-nTr, sAb imy-r sSw and sS a nswt
xft-Hr
2.1. Xry-tp nswt:
This title is known from the Archaic period(3), it is often
translated as royal
chamberlain(4), but it
would appear from the continuous usage that the bearer of
that
title had a close connection with the king as a personal servant for him,
sometimes
in the capacity of a palatine plenipotentiary(5).
(1)
PN I, p. 167:16.
(2)
Ibid., p. 167:18.
(3)
Kaplony, P., Die Inschriften der Ägyptischen Frühzeit, vol. III, ÄA 8,
wiesbaden, 1963, p.
72:267.
(4)
Jones, D., An Index of Ancient Egyptian Titles, Epithets and phrases of the Old
Kingdom,
vol.
II, Oxford, 2000, p. 788:2874.
(5)
Redford, D., “The false-door of Nefer-shu-ba from Mendes”, in: Zahi Hawass and
Jennifer
wegner
(eds.), Millions of Jubilees, studies in Honor of David P. silverman, CASAE 39,
vol.
II,
p. 128.
Goedicke
reconsidered the reading and meaning of this office, he suggested
its
reading to be tpy-Xrt nswt which means: “one who is upon the
royal
property”(1), the title
seems to be not a very high rank but is frequently found
among
the titles of scribes and legal officials(2), which
already appeared with the
present
stele of MTw, Baud also noted that the present
title could be used in a
variety
of capacities including juridical(3).
It
is likely that it was granted merely for the materials and commodities that
came
with it(4). Anyway towards the end of the Old
Kingdom, the title declined in
its
classification(5).
2.2.
sS a nswt
2.3 sS a nswt xft-Hr
The title sS a nswt appeared in the middle of the fourth
dynasty at Saqqara
in
the tomb of isi and in Giza in the tomb of nfr (6) and
continuous through to the
end
of the Old Kingdom(7), the holders of that title were
responsible for writing and
and
administration of documents(8).
(1)
Goedicke, H., “Titles for Titles”, in: S. Allam (ed.), Grund und Boden in Alten
Ägypten,
Tübingen,
1994, pp. 227-234.
(2)
Strudwick, N., The Administration of Egypt in the Old Kingdom, The Highest
Titles and
their
Holders, London, 1985, p. 310.
(3)
Baud, M., Famille royale et pouvoir sous l’Ancien Empire égyptien, vol. II,
Caire, 1999, p.
664.
(4)
Strudwick, N., op. cit., p. 231, n.21.
(5)
Posener-Kriéger, P. , « vous transmettrez vos fonctions à vos enfants … »,
CRIPEL 13, 1991,
1991,
p. 109 (d).
(6)
Strudwick, N., op. cit., pp. 65-66 (17), pp. 109-110 (84).
(7)
Ibid., p. 211.
(8)
Ibid., p. 210.
The
Second title is related to the first one, where the element xft-Hr referred
to
the presence of the king(1), the two
titles were found four times in the titularies
of
imy-r sS a nswt.
The
title sS a nswt xft-Hr is first attested in the middle or
later of the fifth
dynasty,
but it became a frequent sixth dynasty title(2).
There
were seventy four Memphite holders for the title sS a nswt while
there
were only thirty officials held the title sS a nswt xft-Hr
from which there
were
only seven holders held the two titles(3), one of
those seven is MTw the owner
of
the present stela.
The
most common honorific title with sS a nswt was rx nswt while with sS
a nswt xft-Hr was Xry-tp nswt, while in
the sixth dynasty Xry-tp nswt was more
common
than rx nswt with sS a nswt, Strudwick
noted that the title sS a nswt xftHr was more
common in the sixth dynasty than sS a nswt(4).
He
also mentioned that the title sS a nswt xft-Hr outranked sS a nswt in the
later
sixth dynasty(5).
Thus
we can conclude that mTw was first a
sixth dynasty official from the
later
sixth dynasty and he promated from sS a nswt to sS a nswt
xft-Hr.
(1)
Jones, D., op. cit., vol. II, p. 839 :3063.
(2)
Strudwick, N., op. cit., p. 211.
(3)
Ibid., p. 211.
(4)
Ibid., p. 211.
(5)
Ibid., p. 211, which can be used as a dating criteria for the present stela as
well.
2.4 imy-r wp(w)t
Htpt-nTr
This title is nowhere associated directly with a temple(1), Baer noted
that the
office
was connected at least once with a royal pyramid(2), although it
is held by a
Heliopolitan
high priest(3).
It
is worth mentioning that on the walls of the tomb of Iri-n-Axt -discovered
by
Selim Hassan- he mentioned the latter titles which are identical to that of mTw
which are: imy-r wp(w)t Htpt-nTr, sS a nswt, sAb imy-r sSw
and Xry-tp nswt (4),
which
means that these titles were found with each others frequently.
The
title in question was attested beside the title sS a nswt on a small
obelisk
from Heliopolis(5), this title concern with the
divisions of offerings and this
offerings
come through serfs, fields, land holders and also funerary priests(6).
(1)
Fischer, H., Dendera in the Third Millennium B.C Down to the Theban domination
of Upper
Egypt,
New York, 1968, pp. 66, 222.
(2)
Baer, K., Rank and Title in the Old Kingdom, The Structure of the Egyptian
Administration
in
the fifth and sixth dynasties, Chicago, 1960, p. 250; Jones, D., op. cit., vol.
I, p. 98:404
Imy-r
wp(w)t Htp(w)t-nTr mn-anx-Nfr-kA-Ra (pepi II’s pyramid complex).
(3)
Brovarski, E., “Tempelpersonal I”, in: LÄ VI, p. 391.
(4)
Hassan, S., Excavations at Giza, vol. VI, part III, The mastabas of the sixth
season and their
description,
Cairo, 1950, pp. 9, 11.
(5)
Daressy, G., La necropole des grands prêtres d’Héliopolis sous l’Ancien Empire,
ASAE
16,
1916, p. 212. (which appeared also on the present stela of MTw).
(6)
according to the following titles:
Imy-r
wpt Htp(w)t-nTr m mrt AHt
Jones, D., op. cit., vol. I, p. 99:405.
Imy-r
wp(w)t xnty(w)-S
Ibid., p. 99:408.
Imy-r
wpt Hm(w)-kA
Fischer, H., op. cit., p. 222.
2.5. sAb imy-r sSw
This title is translated as “juridical overseer of scribes” or in case of
reading
imy-r
sS(w) n sAb it is translated as “overseer of scribes of the judiciary”(1).
According
to Helck, it is probably with these put their bearers as
members
in the legal(2), he also seems justified in his
assumption that the element
sAb
serves to define the administrative category of the latter(3). (the
writers in the
present
care) i.e. the bearers of that title were writers in the court.
Helck
also noted that it is emphatic that sAb alone isn’t
an independent
title
but always found only infront of other titles(4).
So,
we can conclude from the last title that MTw was overseer
of writers or
scribes
in the court.
Dating:
As for the date, this false door possesses some later features which
frequently
appear on false doors of the end of Old Kingdom particularly the
dynasties
(VI-VIII)(5).
(1)
Jones, D., op. cit., vol. II, p. 803 :2933.
(2)
Helck, W., Untersuchungen zu den Beamtentiteln des ägyptischen Alten Reiches,
Glückstadt,
1954,
p. 82.
(3)
Fischer, H., “A scribe of the Army in a Saqqara mastaba of the early Fifth
dynasty”, JNES
18,
1959, p. 265 (14).
(4)
Helck, W., op. cit., p. 82.
(5)
For the false doors criteria of dating, see:
Wiesbach,
S., Die ägyptische scheintür: Morphologische studien zur Entwicklung und
Bedeutung
der Hauptkultstelle in den privatgräbern des Alten Reiches, Hamburg, 1981, pp.
8-10,
128-141; Brovarski, E., False Doors & History: the Sixth Dynasty, in: M.
Barta (ed.),
The
Old Kingdom Art and Archaeology, prague, 2006, pp. 71-118.; Idem, False Doors
&
History.
The First Intermediate Period and Middle Kingdom, in: D.p. Silverman, W.K.
Simpson,
J. Wenger (eds.), Archaism and Innovation, studies in the culture of Middle
Kingdom
Egypt, New Haven, 2009, pp. 359-423.
(1) The
T-shaped panel which adopted frequently in the Memphite necropolis,
This
form as suggested by Gunn be a rectangular wooden shutter swinging
on
two horizontal pivots at the top corners(1).
This
design of panels probably started about the mid-sixth dynasty-perhaps
the
earliest example is that of ©d-ppy the eldest
son of the vizier xnty-kAi /
ixxi
(2).
This
vizier probably out-lived his king Teti and witnessed the early years of
his
successor Pepy I(3), that would date the vizier’s son to
the later part of
Pepy
I’s reign and the early part of that of Pepy II – particularly in the reign
of
Pepy II(4).
This
panel design then became a favourite style and remained in use during
the
end of the Old Kingdom and there after(5).
(2)
The addition of a torus moulding and cavetto cornice was considered a sixth
dynasty
norm, contra this date it was very much an indication of the
importance
or the status of the stela’s owner(6), it is
perhaps important to
note
that the presence of cornice decoration wasn’t before the late sixth
dynasty
as it became a norm irrespective to the social status of the stela’s
owner
(7)
.
(1)
Firth, C., and Gunn, B., Teti Pyramid Cemeteries, vol. I, Cairo, 1926, p. 176,
n. 6.
(2)
James, T. and Apted, M., The Mastaba of Khentika called Ikhekhi, ASE 30,
London, 1953,
pl.
42.
(3)
Strudwick, N., The Administration of Egypt in the Old Kingdom, The Highest
Titles and
their
Holders, Oxford, 1985, pp. 125-126 (109).
(4)
Ibid., p. 36.
(5)
Ibid., p. 18.
(6)
Wiebach, S., Die ägyptische Scheintür: Morphologische studien zur Entwicklung
und
Bedeutung
der Hauptkultstelle in den privatgräbern des Alten Reiches, Hamburg, 1981, pp.
133-135.
(7)
Idem, “False Door”, in: D. Redford (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient
Egypt, vol. I,
I,
Oxford, 2001, p. 500.
(3) The
using of false doors with two jambs and a narrow one with only one
coloumn
of inscription is a feature not known before the reign of Pepy II,
Despite
this feature was attested in the doors of the viziers ra-wr and ssi –
where
each contained two pairs of jambs- it was a rear feature at that time,
while
the usage of a single coloumn of inscriptions in the jamb wasn’t
known
until the reign of Pepy II(1), which might
be due to its affordable cost
at
the end of the Old Kingdom.
(4)
The appearance of the loaves on the panel offering table in a level reached
the
level of the shoulders of the deceased is a feature attested in the fifth
dynasty
but it was resumed in the sixth dynasty since the reign of Pepi II(2).
(5)
The feminine form of the name of the stela’s owner was found at Saqqara –
the
same necropolis of the present stela- and its owner was dated to the 6th
dynasty(3), so the
masculine form MTw might be known much earlier or at the
the
same time of the feminine form.
(6)
The owner of the stela beard the title sS a nswt xft-Hr which is very
common
in the sixth dynasty.
(7)
The title sS a nswt xft-Hr out ranked sS a nswt in the later
sixth dynasty(4),
also
a dating criteria in the sixth dynasty the title Xry-tp nswt was more
common
than rx-nswt with sS a nswt (5) which appears
on the present stela.
(8)
There is also a parallel false door stela dated to the sixth dynasty in which
two
titles of the present stela where held by its owner(6).
(1)
Strudwick, N., op. cit., pp. 17, 36.
(2)
Ibid., p. 20.
(3)
Mariette, A., Les Mastabas de l’Ancien Empire, Maspero, G. (ed.), Paris, 1885,
p. 402.
(4)
Strudwick, N., op. cit., p. 211.
(5)
Ibid., p. 211.
(6)
This false door was published by Ahmed El-sawi, it is located in the Egyptian
museum (JdE
36808),
where its owner imm held the titles sS a nswt
xft-Hr and sAb imy-r sSw which prove
also
that these titles were common in the sixth dynasty, cf. El-Sawi, A., Three Old
Kingdom
stelae
from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, ASAE 70, 1987, pp. 68, 69.
Iconographic
features of dating:
(1) The appearance of a limited space between the seated figure of the
deceased
and
the back of the chair on the panel, is an iconographic feature first
appeared
in the reliefs of Ibi at Deir el-Gebrawi(1), who is
dated according to
Bear
to the early of Pepi II (V I D)(2), and was
used frequently there after
particularly
in the art of provinces(3). So it is
probably that this feature
became
frequent from the early of Pepy II or at least the middle of his reign
and
there after spread all over Egypt Including Saqqara.
(2)
The simplified shape of the bread slices was perhaps favored as a rapid and
easy
way of representing them(4) in the later
part of the Old Kingdom.
(1)
Davies, N. de G., Rock Tombs of Deir el Gebrâwi,vol. I, ASE 11, London, 1902,
pls. 6, 8-9,
12,
19.
(2)
Baer, K., Rank and Title in the Old Kingdom, the structure of the Egyptian
Administration in
the
Fifth and Sixth Dynasties, Chicago, 1960, p. 288 (32); Kanawati, N., The
Egyptian
Administration
in the Old Kingdom, Warminster, 1977, p. 51.
(3)
it appeared in:
– Dendera: cf.,
Fischer, H., Dendera in the Third Millennium B.C. down to the Theban
domination
of Upper Egypt, New York, 1968, pls. XXIV, XXV-XXVIII.
– Naqada: cf.,
Idem, Inscriptions from the Coptite Nome Dynasties VI-XI, Rome, 1964, pls.
XII,
XXI, XIII, XXX.
– Hagarsa: cf.,
Kanawati, N., The Tombs of El-Hagarsa, vol. III, Sydney, 1995, pl. 41.
– Busiris: cf.,
Fischer, H., Some early monuments from Busiris in the Egyptian Delta, MMJ
11,
1976, figs. 8-9.
– Naga-ed-Der:
cf., Dunham, D., Naga-ed-Dêr stelae of the First Intermediate Period,
London,
1937, pls. XI (2), XXII (1).
(4)
This simplified shape of the bread slices probably first appeared as unfinished
relief, when
dealing
about its first occurrence, there were two opinions, the first one claims that
this
simplified
form of bread slices first appeared on the false door of the vizier iHy from Unas
cemetery.
(Strudwick,
N., op. cit., p. 63 (15)).
While
others claim that the earliest occurrence of that feature is that of queen Iput
(Firth,
C. and Gunn, B., Teti Pyramid Cemeteries, vol. II, Cairo, 1926, pl. 55,1)
Who
was the wife of king Teti and mother of his successor Pepi I, also daughter of
king
Unas.
(Seipel,
W., “I put I”, LÄ III, p. 176).
Anyway,
This rectangular bread-like shape was frequently in use from then by Artists as
a
simple
technique for producing bread slices above the offering table.
Cf.,
Jéquier, G., La Pyramide d’Oudjebten, Cairo, 1928, p. 30, fig. 37 ; Borchardt,
L.,
Denkmäler
des Alten Reiches, vol. I, Berlin, 1937, p. 147 (CG 1458); Abdalla, A., The
Cenotaph
of the Sekwashket family from Saqqara, JEA 78, 1992, p. 107.
(3) The
deceased appeared on the inner Jambs of the false door in the corpulent
or
mature representation which is an artistic feature appeared frequently
from
the second half of the sixth dynasty(1).
(4)
Another dating criteria is the length of the skirt worn by the corpulent figure
of
the deceased and the placing of the waist, navel and the buttocks higher
on
the figure points to the Late Old Kingdom(2).
(5)
The deceased is represented on the panel sitting on a low back chair where
the
chair’s leg imitates those of a lion which is a feature infrequent for nonroyal
reliefs of the fourth dynasty(3), but it
became much more frequent on
those
reliefs dating to the end of the fifth dynasty(4) and are quite
common on
those
of the sixth dynasty(5).
(6)
The wig worn by the deceased on the panel and the outer jambs, which
covers
the ears, this type of wig is a characteristic feature of the Second Old
Kingdom
Style(6).
(1)
Fischer, H., A scribe of the Army in a Saqqara Mastaba of the early Fifth
Dynasty, JNES 18,
1959,
pp. 245-246; Idem., Some early monuments from Busiris in the Egyptian Delta,
MMJ
11,
1976, p. 14, n. 51; Harpur, Y., Decoration in Egyptian Tombs of the Old
Kingdom,
London,
1987, pp. 131-133, tb.6.9.
(2)
Fischer, H., op. cit., JNES 18, 1959, pp. 245-246, fig. 10e.
(3)
Reisner, G., A History of the Giza Necropolis, vol. I, Cambridge, 1942, pls. 18
(a, b), 39 (a),
40
(b).
(4)
Davies, N. de G., The Mastaba of Ptahhetep and Akhethetep at Saqqareh, part II,
ASE 9,
London,
1901, pls. 13, 14, 24, 34; Paget, R. and Pirie, A., The Tomb of Ptah-hetep, London,
1898,
pls. 34-35, 38, 39.
(5)
The mastabas of Qar and Idu at Giza, Simpson, W.K. and Dunham, D., The Mastabas
of Qar
and
Idu, G 7101 and 7102, Boston, 1976, pls. VII c, XIV a, XXVI b, XXVI b, XXIX d,
figs.
20,
23.
The
mastaba of Khentika at Saqqara, James, T. and Apted, M., The Mastaba of
Khentika
called
Ikhekhi, ASE 30, London, 1953, passim; the mastaba of Mereruka at Saqqara,
Duell,
P.
et al., The Mastaba of Mereruka, part I, Chicago, 1938, pls. 57, 78, 88, 96;
Fischer,
H., Varia Nova, New York, 1996, p. 146.
(6)
Brovarski, E., A Second Style in Egyptian Relief of the Old Kingdom, in: S.E.
Thompson
and
P. Der Manuelian (eds.), Egypt and beyond: Essays presented to Leonard H.
Lesko,
Brown,
2008, p. 52, fig. 1, pl. 1; p. 55, fig. 2; pp. 83-84.
Paleographical
Features of dating:
(1) The position of the Htp sign after
the nsw-sign is typical of the Htpdi-nsw formula used
during the Old Kingdom(1).
(2)
The classic arrangement writing of with elongated bread is
typical
of Late Old Kingdom(2).
(3)
The appearance of the beer jar determinative without handles is a Late Old
Kingdom
feature but it became a standard linguistic feature of the
Herakleapolitan
Period(3).
(4)
The writing of the older form of Anubis on a stand in place of or
is
attested in the early sixth dynasty(4) and became
frequent in the reign of
Pepy
II(5).
From
the previous, I am inclined to date this false door by the sixth dynasty
particularly
the reign of Pepy II or slightly later contra Borchardt who dated this
stela
by the Middle Kingdom(6).
(1)
Lapp, G., Die Opferformel des Alten Reiches, SDAIK 21, Mainz, 1986, p. 1,
However, this
arrangement
is typical of ninth dynasty at Naga-ed-Der, Brovarski, E., The inscribed
Material
of
the First Intermediate Period from Naga-ed-Der, vol. I, Ann Arbor, 1989, p.
209. So it
may
appeared in the Memphite necropolis before its appearance in the provinces.
(2)
Fischer, H., Dendera in the Third Millennium B. C. down to the Theban
domination of Upper
Egypt,
New York, 1968, p. 84 (14).
(3)
Probably the earlier example of that writing is derived from the hieratic
documents,
Goedicke,
H., Old Hieratic Paleography, Baltimore, 1988, p. 46 a-b (w22); Daoud, K.,
Corpus
of inscriptions of the Herakleopolitan Period from the Memphite Necropolis,
Oxford,
2005,
p. 98.
(4)
Cf., James.T. and Apted, M., The Mastaba of Khentika called Ikhekhi, ASE 30,
London,
1953,
pls. 7, 13.
(5)
Davies, N. de G., The Rock Tombs of Deir el Gebrâwi, vol. I, ASE 11, 1902, pl.
18; vol. II,
ASE
12, 1902, pls. 8, 12, 21; Fischer, H., Dendera in the Third Millennium B.C.,
pl. VIII (on
the
stela of wti which dated to the end of the sixth
dynasty).
(6)
Borchardt, L., Denkmäler des Alten Reiches im Museum von Kairo, vol. I, Berlin,
1937,
p.56.