unambiguous global temperature increase and other climatic changes are already
beginning to add pressures on coastal environments. Global sea-level rise, a
major long-term effect of climate warming is impacting coasts now and will have
increasingly significant social and economic impacts on coastal and low-lying
regions worldwide. About 600 million people in coastal regions below 10 m
elevation are increasingly at risk from the coastal hazards.
not only increasing threat of climate change is the problem of the coastal
regions of the world. Those regions are also facing huge problems due to the
continuing arrival of large numbers of people in coastal regions, human
pressures on coastal ecosystems and resources.
ecological degradation, different social vulnerability (especially in emerging
countries) and exposure to coastal hazards create a complex picture of
socio-ecological vulnerability in coastal regions of the world.
change poses increasing threats to coastal areas, including atmospheric and
coastal water temperatures rise, precipitation and runoff changes, potentially
significant sea-level rise, unsafe changes in coastal storms and typhoon
intensification, changes of ocean currents, acidification, altered freshwater
and sedimentary flows to the coast, and nutrient enrichment of coastal streams
resulting impact on coastal natural and human systems requires individuals,
businesses and communities to find creative ways to adapt and change their
behavior to minimize coastal risks.
adaptation strategies evolve, coastal management must better consider the
cumulative, synergistic and increasing pressures of climate change and
concurrent human activity.
is important remember that coastal management issues in climate change cannot
be solved once and for all due to incomplete, sometimes contradictory and
changing conditions and sometimes lack of understanding of causes and wrong preferences
for solutions. For example, during construction of breakwaters we always need
to consider future change of overtopping rate due to sea-level rise.
sciences and practice changes are needed to face unexpected problems that may
come and create unsuspected solutions, thus ensuring the safe and prosperous
occupation of the coastal area.