Isolation, phosphate (P) and potash (K) are

Isolation, characterization and
identification of K,P soluble bacteria on growth and yield of Maize
(Zea Mays L.) crop in Vehari 

 

ABSTRACT

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After nitrogen (N) the phosphate (P) and potash (K)
are highest macronutrients for plants. The uptake of them by using microbes is
gaining importance day by day. Microorganisms play key role between plants and
minerals in environmental cycling processes, further transportability by the
use of biological uptake and biofertilizer increase the fertility, crop growth
and yield. Rhizosphere is the source where different kinds of microorganisms
are serving for nutrient uptake. PGPR plant growth promoting rhizobacteria
including KSB and PSB are used in many countries as a biofertilizers. Use of
chemical fertilizers disturbs the activity of microbes and sustainability of
the environment. The Dist. Vehari is famous as agricultural point of view in
Punjab, Pakistan. The maize cultivation has been increased from last 5 to 8
years due to loss in cotton by milli bug, environmental factors and
unavailability of proper seed. But from last few decades farmers are facing
problems related to both productivity and economically. By implementation of
knowledge and analysis of its agricultural land will provide more productivity
and sustainability in this area. This study is chosen to solve this problem. The
mineral and rock containing potassium and phosphorus will be applied in plants
placed at Adoptive research centre Vehari and in the Lab of COMSAT Institute
Vehari. The samples will be collected from that areas rhizosphere of maize crop
and selected two K and P Soluble rhizobacteria and grown in Tryptone Yeast
medium. 8 treatments with four different replications will be conducted. The
growth and number will be increased at different values for addition in
experimental soil in the form of solution. With other portion of the same
localities the Potassium and Phosphorus Soluble Bacteria solution will be
applied. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) will be structured. The
inoculums will be collected and inserted into field. With continuously selected
days the checking of growth and effects of both kinds of experiments will be
checked in Maize. Measurements of dry plant and yield production and fruit
biomass will be measured. All the data collected by experiments will be
statistically analyzed by using statistica 8.1and CoState software’s. The
expected results may be definitely that rock addition for fertilization will
not give more production and is more expensive. On the otherside of research
track the use of K and P soluble bacteria the growth and yield will be more and
environmentally friendly. Biofertilizers contain K & P Soluble Bacteria for
Zea mays will promote the highest yield and biomass.They are replacing the
chemical fertilizers with sustainable and accessible fertilizers. The increased
environmental stresses effect on maize crop of the region will remain left of
this study.

KEYPOINTS: Potassium
Soluble Bacteria (KSB), Phosphate Soluble Bacteria (PSB), Biofertilizers

 

INTRODUCTION

Maize (Zea mays), due to its economically
importance cultivated across world specially countries like Middle est, Africa,
India, Pakistan, Brazil, Turkey, Malysia and some southern states of USA (Brutnel
et al., 2015). It is estimated around 3.13 million tons, 3264 kg/ha as
production and yield in Pakistan. In world 142 million hector of land is
covered with maize and approximately production is 913 million tons. It is rich
source of mineral, vitamins and dietary fibers. It is used as corn flour, corn
flakes, whole corn, popcorn, tortilla chips, corn oil, corn syrup, corn gluten,
corn meal (Farooq et al., 2015). It is ranked third as cereal crop of Pakistan,
behind wheat and rice, used as staple food across Punjab and Khyber Pakhtoon
Khan, also provide a big raw material for farm animals. Low crop yield and
chemical penetration is common problem (Rehman et al., 2015)

Potassium
and phosphorus are essential nutrients for the growth and development of plant
after nitrogen, mostly are supplied through organic and inorganic sources.(Ricardo
et al,. 2010) Potassium is the 3rd most important mineral after
nitrogen and phosphorus. At the earth crust it is 7th most abundant
element. In plants it play key role in growth and in performing many functions
like water movement, electrical balance, regulations of hormones, opening and
closing of stomata, resistance against biotech and abiotech stresses. Plants
can take in potassium only in solution form.(Vijay et al. 2015)

 

The phosphorus is
one of most abundant nutrient ranked next to nitrogen, required for plant
growth. Most of the plant functions rely on its sufficient quantity like, cellular
content, reproductional functions and development. Mostly chemical forms of its
fertilizers are used. Fertilizers from chemical sources are undesirable effects
in terms of environment or food chain and also expensive.  They are not economically, environmentally
friendly and efficient. About 75 percent phosphorus becomes unavailable due to
its chemical fixation with calcium carbonate,  iron and aluminum (N. Tanzing et al. 2016).

Many microorganisms
specially residing near roots of rhizosphere help to regain that bounded
phosphorous into plant soluble form. Phosphate solubilizing microbes present
almost every soil but their number varies from soil to soil due to climate and
conditions of soil.(Yuquan et al 2018) The solution of low crop productivity,
environmentally friendly and economically affordable is the use of growth
promoting soil rhizomicrobes and rock of K and P. The rock of K and P is mostly
not readily insoluble for plants therefore better choice is soil soluble fixer
microbes of them (H.S et al., 2006).

They biofertilizers
are replacing the chemical fertilizers due to their more benefits and less
risks for farmers, and directly effects positively to the environmental
microbiota and a sustainable agriculture across the world. Therefore for next
generations the use of them is crucial and least necessary. The less use of them
makes loss for backward areas and countries of the world. The adaptation to
them is vital and cheap (Gajendra and Behari. 2017)

RESEARCH
QUESTION

What will be
effects, benefits and implementations of isolation, characterization, and
identification of K & P Soluble Bacteria for farmers of the maize crop of Vehari
region?

RESEARCH
OBJECTIVES

Following
objectives will be achieved after this research,

1-     
To make importance of biofertilizers and research on
microbes for farmers awareness of the region

2-     
By use of previous knowledge the search of new trends of
implementation at regional level

3-     
To adopt and aware the way which is more safe and
environmentally friendly for agricultural practices

SOCIO-
ECONOMIC BENEFITS

Maize cultivation
and production is increasing in the region but the use of chemical fertilizer
also increases, this practice is not safe environmental point of view. This is
not only expensive but disturbing of the natural flora and fauna of the region.
It is disturbing the natural microbes which are fixing and cycling the
nutrients in the soil for plants. Therefore the need of modern agriculture
practices, the use of biofertilizers is necessary to adopt to save money and
ecosystem.

LITERATURE
REVIEW

To
transform soil potassium and phosphate into soluble form for the use of plants
about thirty five bacterial strains were collected. This will be important to
select best strains who will be useful for their activity in K and P
availability for plants, more sustainable and friendly with environment and
productive in yield (Debabrata et al,.2017).

 

The
research represents the importance of K in maize, its uptake in a safe way and
also describes overview of current trends, challenges with KSB , their role in
plants growth and production as agricultural point of view(H. Etisami et al.,
2017).

 

Characterization
and isolation of maize rhizosphere bacteria for the phosphate soluble bacteria
was discussed in detail. Maize as very important crop for animals and human
beings is selected because of its importance in upcoming years of world
increasing population requirements (S. Vinod 2017 et al., 2017).

 

Biofertilizers
in field are hindering many challenges due to its less acknowledgment among
farmers. Although they are least important for environment and growing
population needs of food and livelihood. Microorganism presents already in soil
need more investigation therefore it will possible to control them according to
our needs (E.Malusa et al., 2016).

 

Potassium
is important soil component for plants nutritional value. The soil
microorganisms are cheap source for their uptake for plants. Using mica (Insoluble
potash) the KSB were isolated for nourishment of plants in the field (Anukriti
et al., 2016)

 

 

 

 

MATERIAL AND METHOD

 

The experiment will
be done in Adaptive Research Centre for Agriculture and COMSAT lab in Vehari.
The effects of K and P soluble bacteria on maize will be examined in Greenhouse
experiment conducted by following(USDA, Inceptisol) Aquepts Series Typic
Endoequepts soil sampling will be done from above selected areas.

The general
techniques for the use of laboratories will be followed that of Cappuccino
(1992), Nene (1993) and Aneja (2001) for the media preparation of microbe
cultures, sterilization, isolation and inoculation with minor changes where
ever needed.

Collection
of rhizosphere soils will
be selected and done at the farm near local areas of District Vehari  adoptive research centre with the help of
respected personal and at the minor farm grown at COMSAT Vehari with the help
of students.

The next step will
be isolation of rhizosphere bacteria from soil samples and using serial
dilution and then streak plate method the purification will be done of specific
strains.

Isolation,
characterization and purification of K and P soluble bacteria will be
done by using specific nutrients with the implementation of modified compounds
related with both of potash and phosphate. The detection of both will be done
by separately on the base of solubilization zone formation, colony size and
clear zones. The pure cultures of them will be stored at 4 degree centigrade in
the refrigerators in their receptive medium.

The study of isolates
culture, characterization and identification will be made with the use of colony
size, shape, texture, color, opacity and consistency, Gram staining, indole
test, methyle red test, casein hydrolysis test, triple sugar iron test,
vogespruoskauer test and simmon citterate test examined.

Temperature and pH on
the growth and activity of KSB and PSB will be examined at different values of
them.

Bergyess manual of systematic
bacteriology and biochemical study will be done for identification of pure
isolates of them.

Fields Trials will
be conducted through a number of mechanisms by examining the maize soil, body
contents of biomass or in dry mass weight, roots and seed examination. The
seeds will be mixed with KSB and PSB lifted to germinate for the period of
three months after that whole record will be examined and recorded  charts and graphs.  The results will be arranged and checked by
the use of  statistica 8.1 software. Then
use of CoState software will be done.

 

REFERENCES

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