Introduction: Nucleotide is in form of 2

Introduction:

HIV/AIDS is serious
health issue across the globe. HIV is exceptionally epidemic, target of HIV is
human line of defense i.e. our immune system. It has been seen that HIV/ AIDS
has high prevalence rate in developing states. Poverty, lack of community
education, hunger, lack of medical measurements, high illiteracy ratio are key
factors that triggered high incidence rates of HIV/ AIDS (Bhurgri, 2006).

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HIV
Structure:

HIV is a retrovirus,
categorized in separate genus lentiviruses and belongs to family Retroviridae. This
genus contains a large number of infectious agents particularly infecting
animals. Electron Microscopy reveals that HIV has core shaped, core is made up
of p25 (or p24) Gag protein (Leis et al., 1988). Nucleotide is in
form of 2 identical RNA strands within which reverse transcriptase is present (Gelderblom et al., 1987; Haase, 1986; Levy, 1986).

HIV
Genome information:

HIV is retrovirus, which
packs two copies of un-spliced RNA. Viral RNA as dimmer, both dimerization and
packing is mechanically coupled (Lu et al., 2011). It is believed
that due to cross specie events both HIV 1 and HIV 2 were evolved (Keele et al., 2006). Pandemic HIV is
classified into 9 subtypes. It has many recombinant forms, whereas 2 or more
than two subtypes encode their genetic makeup 
(Thomson  and Nájera, 2005). It’s a greatest
challenge for Therapeutic companies to design effective therapeutic drug  against HIV 1 due to continuously changing
genetic makeup by HIV 1 (Korber et al., 2001).

Dominant subtype C makes
up 55 to 60% of worldwide HIV
infections (Thomson  and Nájera, 2005). Whereas Non subtype B isolates differ from
subtype B isolates in terms of viral genetic makeup (Blackard et al., 2002; Centlivre et al.,
2006; Laeyendecker et al., 2006). 
Estimated size of HIV genome is 9.8kb. Gag, Pol and Env are basic viral proteins
of HIV, translated by primary transcript of virus mRNA, which upon
proteolytic cleavage give rise to different sets of proteins needed by HIV.
Synthesis ratio of Gag, Gag-pol products is 20:1 (Luftig  and Lupo, 1994). Regulatory
proteins Tat, Rev also known as RNA binding proteins control optimal activity
upon interacting with cellular factors. Negative factor Nef involved in down
regulation of viral expression. Vif, Vpr, Vpu/Vpx have important role in viral
assembly, packing, budding and synthesis of viral infectious agents (Levy, 1993).

HIV
Pathogenicity:

HIV is capable of down
regulating innate, adapted and intrinsic immunity (Bieniasz,
2004; Mahalingam et al., 2002). HIV life cycle
is too complicated. Its time duration, possible damaging effects to cell
depends upon type of cell and cell activation (Johnson  and Coffin, 1999). Initially HIV
upon reaching to cellular components (gp 120 is 1st protein that
interacts with cell’s CD4+ receptor)
poses no lethal effects but entry of HIV triggers intracellular transduction
pathways which in turn might be beneficial in viral genome replication (Balabanian et al., 2004; Cicala et al., 2002). HIV is too clever to enter in human
cells by neutralizing and hiding from different types of immunological factors
and pathways, systems (Barré-Sinoussi,
1996; Emerman  and Malim, 1998; Howley, 1996).

HIV
Prevalence globally:

38.6 million people are
estimated with HIV 1 globally. 25 million deaths have been reported up till
now. South Africa is still hot spot of HIV pandemic with significantly high
rate of HIV 1 infection (Simon et al., 2006).

Serial.NO

Year

New
HIV infection

HIV
related Deaths

People
living with HIV

1

2001

3.4
million

1.9
million

30.0
million

2

2002

3.3
million

2.1
million

31.0
million

3

2003

3.1
million

2.2
million

31.70
million

4

2004

3.0
million

2.3
million

32.2
million

5

2005

2.9
million

2.3
million

32.5
million

6

2006

2.8
million

2.3
million

32.8
million

7

2007

2.7
million

2.2
million

33.2
million

8

2008

2.6
million

2.1
million

33.5
million

9

2009

2.6
million

2.0
million

34.0
million

10

2010

2.5
million

1.9
million

34.4
million

11

2011

2.5
million

1.8
million

34.9
million

12

2012

2.3
million

1.6
million

35.3
million

 

Serial.NO

Region

New
HIV infection

HIV
Associate Deaths

People
living with HIV

1

Eastern and southern Africa

79000
million

420000million

19.4
million

2

Western and central Africa

370000million

310000million

6.1
million

3

Middle East and North Africa

18000
million

11000million

230000million

4

Asia and the Pacific

270000million

170000million

5.1
million

5

Latin America

97000
million

36000million

1.8
million

6

Caribbean

18000
million

9400
million

310000million

7

Eastern Europe and central Asia

190000million

40000million

1.6
million

This 1st table
data is according to (Organization,
2017) and 2nd
is according to ((Roser  and Ortiz-Ospina, 2017).

HIV
prevalence in Pakistan:

Pakistan is largely
infected by HIV/AIDS due to unsafe blood transfusions, sharing of common
syringes and needles, unsafe sex, and with low level of condom usage, high
number of afghan refugees on border areas, truck drivers who move to remote
areas and do not acknowledge safe sex measures, local migrants presence, high
rate of sexually transmitted diseases and then there is no more proper sexually
transmitted care centers to deal these issues (Bhurgri).

Serial.NO

Year

New
HIV infection

HIV
related Deaths

People
living with HIV

1

2005

9400