In related fatality rate was tripled in

In the early days of aviation history, the industry was
lacking safety-conscious culture. It relied
heavily on governmental regulations. As time went, regulations were added and
adjusted for the mishaps that happened. However, there were times when
governments were low on budgets and reduced fundings for aviation regulatory agencies or when the government wanted to centralize the authorities
and abolished the certain necessary agencies. As a result, aviation
accidents rate increased. For example, Reorganization Act of 1939 in the USA,
the administrative power of Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) was shifted to Civil Aeronautics Authority
(CAA) Administrator and relocated the
Administrator in Department of Commence. The CAB was made to be responsible for
accident investigation while the Air Safety Board was eliminated by President Roosevelt
and Congress. Aviation related fatality rate was tripled in 1940 as compared to
1939 (Wilson, 1979). Generally, the regulations were not welcomed by the
airline industry as following the regulations would cost more time and money.
The airlines only follow regulations that were there to get by. When there was
a lax of regulation enforcement, the accident rate would increase as safety was
not quite a priority for the airline industry.

Safety Management System (SMS) is a relatively new system
for aviation safety introduced by ICAO in 2006. It involves the whole organization, from top to bottom, instead of
individuals or small group efforts. However, the ultimate responsibility lies
with the head of the organization. It helps to establish a clear policy which
aims for safety in daily operation and form a culture to include everyone in
the organization for safety awareness. This safety awareness will help to identify
any hazard and risk which may one day be the cause of an accident or unfortunate
event. This hazard or risk will be brought to attention and be corrected or brought
under control as a preventive measurement. And if one day any incident happens
would be reported and investigated to find the root cause and to improve the
system. Everyone in the organization will be continuously trained and educated
so he or she will perform safely during daily operation. Safety performance
will continuously be monitored and measured to see if the safety goals are
being achieved and if any improvement needed.

There are four main components in SMS. They are safety
policy and objectives, safety risk management, safety assurance, and safety
promotion. From these four components, they are broken down into twelve elements.

policy and objectives

Management commitment and responsibility

Safety accountabilities

Appointment of key safety personnel

Coordination of emergency response planning

SMS documentation

risk management

Hazard identification

Safety risk assessment and mitigation


Safety performance monitoring and measurement

The management of change

Continuous improvement of SMS


Training and education

Safety communication  (ICAO, 2013)