Foreign piracy at sea and on land.

Foreign relations in the UAE have made a significant impact on the current state of the UAE, as it does with all nations. The UAE although more progressive then some it’s neighboring counterparts, still faces  controversy that being a rentier state entails; however, UAE, has made strides in order to ensure that political relations are neutralized, by enforcing open and free trade rather than war – a political theory known as liberalism. Although succession of Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan is seen as the driving force of  the great economic success for the the emirates, it is through their historical ties with Great Britain that the UAE gained significance and approval. Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan, however paved the way for the Emirates as we know it, by capitalizing on oil and gas as well as retaining a vision for the nation post oil.  Relatively speaking, they have achieved a great amount of peace within the region through trade, yet some conflicts still arise. Most recently with Qatar and the battle to fight extremism. The UAE strong ties with the west, specifically the british began in 18th century, when the British first extended aid to the lower golf in order to defeat the pirates of the Qawasim, who they too were threatened by. In 1820 the british troops defeated the pirates of the Qawasim, and established a treaty prohibiting piracy at sea and on land. The treaty was known as  the General Treaty of Peace  (Sugata 2009)Through the treaty, the local tribes had made truths with the british and more so with each other.  This treaty also established alliship between the british and the Sheikhs (rulers) of Saudi Arabia as piracy was a problem they had too endured. In the 19th century when the british were planning the Sykes-picot, the british invoked the Treaty of Daren with abdulaziz al Saud  ruler of Saudi Arabia.  Abdul- Aziz agreed to enter the war as an ally to great britain against the ottoman empire, in exchange  the british now gave international recognitionion to the novice state of  Saudi Arabia, as well as  to establish it’s boundaries for Quatar, kuwait, and  modern day UAE (which were then known as the “Trucial Sheikhdoms.”) The sheikhs of the lower gulf  arabia now enjoined into treaty relations with Britain, Although the Treaty of Darin’s main objective was to secure it’s golf protectant it had the unintended consequence to create the first territorial dispute that lingers on.  The treaty of daren unintendedly extended Abdul- Aziz  to these newly established borders, and it did not gain favor with the tribes in those regions, as well as the neighboring countries. Abudl-Aziz’s, however, strongly gained the british approval as he made mention of his loyalty to Great Britain’s Major-General Sir Percy Zachariah Cox when he stated “I Sultan (King) Abdul Aziz son of Abdul Rahman Al-Faisal Al-Saud acknowledge and admit a thousand times to sir Percy Cox, Great Britain’s Ambassador, that I do not mind to give Palestine to the poor Jews or others as deemed fit by Britain which I do not contradict in opinion and that until the hour comes.  Although this is unrelated to his conquest, it was vital for the british to gain his word as it granted them some legitimacy in the  region by having an ally.  In order to solve the territorial dispute, the british now with strong ties Abdu-Aziz suspended the treaty of Darren that left border control ambiguis, and enforced the 1927 treaty of Jeddah that clearly extedned Abdul- Aziz’s power to newly established borders. According the National the historical ties between the two enables he good relations between the country, as “Soon after the UAE gained its independence from a government formed under the current British monarch, it set up one of its first embassies in London to oversee interests in the British Isles as well as the European mainland” Today their good relations is reflected through ongoing trade as well as an agreement with plans to co-operate with the Emirates nuclear energy plant program. ifuture.https://www.thenational.ae/the-other-special-relationship-the-uae-and-the-uk-1.549898 The Uae Gained Independence from Britain, and formed a federation of seven Emirates. When the british withdrew from the gulf, these states formed the United Arab Emirates. However, territorial disputes arose. Now, every state wanted the largest possible area due to the discovery of oil and Gas. This led to various tensions between the neighbouring states. A well documented dispute, one also with historical relevance, is the saudi arabian territorial dispute. Territorial dispute occurred between Saudi Arabia and the UAE over disputed bodies of water.  The land  between Qatar and the United Arab Emirates is owned by Saudi Arabia, however It is believed that the eastward side transgresses into UAE territorial waters. This has lead to a disagreement between the two. Though in theory, it was resolved with the Treaty of Jeddah, which was signed August 1974,  the United Arab Emirates, never ratified the agreement. The issue flared up once again in 2005 and became public in 2006 claiming it lost territory. It was later argued, however that the 1974 agreement is of questionable validity in terms of international law as It has been neither published nor ratified by the UAE Federal National Council, an non negotiable step to make an agreement binding (Morton,2014.)There has also been a dispute with Iran. Upon the formation of the UAE,  it claimed  the islands of Greater Tunb, Abu Musa, and Lesser Tunb,  located on the Persian Gulf. Iran claimed the island which had been occupied by the British in the late nineteenth century, and was rightly there as by 1992, Britain had agreed to return the Island to Iran ( Bismarck. 2013.)  The justification for this is that the  U.A.E was just becoming formed at the time of the dispute and it’s claim was not recognized internationally;  as a result, it could not claim on any territory as it was not yet an official state.( Bismarck. 2013.) the justification for this is that the  U.A.E was just becoming formed at the time of the dispute and it’s claim was not recognized internationally.( Bismarck. 2013.) . Despite the disputes the UAE has remained relatively peaceful, This is because it has made peace not by wars, but through trade. It is true that over 85% of the UAE’s economy was largely based on the oil exports in 2009 ( “The World Factbook”. CIA.), and according to economic analyst Zahlan “gas  and oil wealth gave the emirates economic development, their interests ultimately provided  the basis for a forward US policy in the Arab world.”  Although this is initially what lead to the for the ongoing success it’s the UAE free and liberal economy  that  is to owe to the ongoing and forthcoming economic success. In the last decade, trade with the U.S and the United arab has grown 118% and since 2009, the UAE has been the largest markets for the U.S in the region. The u.s embassy in the UAE states “total trade between the two countries totaled $25.73 billion, with the US exporting $22.38 billion to the UAE.” The UAE has built an alliance beyond trade with the U.S. whose military and intelligence information is an asset and a  need to the U.S if they are to monitor Iraq and contain Iran.The reason for such accomplishment, is because of the UAE trade policy, which in some emirates is free. For example, dubai has a free trade policy, except for  foreign banks and oil which attracts foreign businesses, this encourages growth beyond the oil sectors. In  1966 when the UAE began capitalizing on oil it’s successor SHEIKH bin Zayed  made contributions to the emirates that would allow it to grow post – oil. His efforts have been reinforced by his son Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, as well as Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum ruler of dubai and vice president of uae. They have made contribution to the country to insure its growth post- oil. Through technological advancements, projects such as of railways, the UAE civilian nuclear energy program; as well and expansion of seaports were endorsed.  According to Khaleej Times”The non-oil trade has grown to AED 1.2 trillion, a growth of around 28 times from 1981 to 2012.” Today the UAE is also a cosmopolitan hub, largely due of the relaxed policies with a added bonus no non existing to low tariffs, it has allowed  opportunities in Dubai to flourish. According to the World Population Review, there is a substantial number of expatriate population that has contributed to the UAE’S POPULATION COUNT. The majority of expatriates are choosing to reside in Dubai. The World population review has stated that “Out of the 9.2 million, the expatriates contributed to around 7.8 million with the Emirati Nationals holding a population share of 1.4 million. there are a varied number of nationalities who form a part of the majority of the expats in UAE especially Dubai and Abu Dhabi.” Recently a European community has emerged and is making a peculiar presence in the resident population owing it to the urban and free lifestyle of Dubai, where dresscode is not enforced – a novelty in most middle eastern monarchies. The majority of the expat growth influence is still by South East Asian polulation,  especially Indian and Pakistani. The South Asian group alone contributes to around 58% of the total population of UAE, most come for labour in manufacturing, as well as  transport industries, According to India-UAE Bilateral Relations between India and the UAE have traditionally been friendly.  The growth in the non oil sectors in the UAE show promise, and are an area of oppurtunity(B Maurer,2017.)UAE’s liberal  foreign policy strategy revolves around building cooperation-based relations with all countries of the world. The UAE gains favor with the region as it offers substantial foreign aid, this has increased the UAE’s stature among the region, as most of the foreign aid (over 15 billion) has been to the neighboring Muslim and arab countries.UAE has Multilateral relationsedit and has  joined the Arab League and the United Nations in  establishing diplomatic relations with over than sixtey countries around the globe, including the, South Korea,  United States India, Nepal‚China,Japan, Pakistan, Russia, India, Nepal‚China, and most Western European countries. The UAE  played a part within thePetroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC,)   the Organization of Arab as well as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).TThe UAE is a member of the following international organizations: UN and several of its specialized agencies (ICAO, ILO, UPU, WHO, WIPO); World Bank, IMF, Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), OPEC, Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, and the Non-Aligned Movement.One of the most prominent  alliances the UAE joined in the region  Cooperation Council throughout the middle east. One being,  Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) SIGNED IN in it Its member states are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.23 The Charter of the Gulf Cooperation Council was signed on 25 May 1981.This instatuition is a means of creating a political and economic  union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf, except for Iraq.(Nora Ann,2011) Colton, Nora Ann (2011) Social stratification in the Gulf Cooperation Council States. Kuwait Programme on Development, Governance and Globalisation in the Gulf States, 14. London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK. an area of opportunity for the GCC countries is invest in diversification of economic measures, Gas sector remains the largest contributor to the GDP for all the countries in the GCC, an area of conflict is that the countries in the sector are failing to diversify their economies GDP source, with the exception  the UAE has been able to diversify its economy.The  issues that have occurred due to the muslim brotherhood according to CNN “is a is a religious and political group founded on the belief that Islam is not simply a religion, but a way of life. It advocates a move away from secularism and towards sharia”  this is threatening to the uae who believs according to Representative? Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan who stated thihs in an arab league summit” The Arab League needs to be restructured to become a viable institution, and would like to increase the strength and interoperability of the GCC defense forces.” The UAE  most prominent area of conflict is with Quatar which according to the national “after A member of the Muslim Brotherhood accused Qatar of using the outlawed group to target education institutions, youth and women to spread separatist ideologies.” This goes against the ideologies of the UAE liberal valures. The claimed a  “violation of the statement issued at the US-Islamic Summit in Riyadh”, which gave commitments to countering terrorism in the region and branded Iran a state sponsor of terrorism,between the GCC members. On june 5, 2017 United Arab Emirates  began a boycott of Qatar and cut all diplomatic ties. In responce to the allegations against them, quatari  denied all clammes they support the extremets, however according to the national, the ” UAE  will suspend all flights to and from Qata” Security official Dubai security Lt. Gen. Dhahi Khalfan,  has said the only way for “Qatar’s crisis” to end is if Doha gave up hosting the 2022 FIFA World Cup, his comments coming amid the.Qatari officials did not r, in part over allegations that Doha supports extremists and has overly warm ties to Iran from Tuesday. The UAE also said its airspace and territorial waters would be closed to Qatari vessels and aircraft.The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation said the UAE had taken the measures because of Qatar’s “continued support, funding and hosting of terror groups, primarily Islamic Brotherhood.