DISCUSS political goals which are intended to

DISCUSS DIFFICULTIES IN DEFINING TERRORISM. Terrorism has no universal global accredited definition as at today. It is dynamic, changing faces and presentation just like crime. The terrorism of yesterday is not the terrorism of today and may not be the terrorism of tomorrow. According to the British, it is the use or threats for the purpose of advancing in political, religious ideological causes which involve serious violence against persons and property. In 1992, United Nations defined terrorism as an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by semi-clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminalor political reasons, whereby in contrast to assassination, the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. According to the Germans, enduringly conducted struggle for political goals which are intended to be achieved by means of assaults on life and property by means of severe crimes is considered terrorism. The British Government definition of terrorism from 1974 as the use of violence for political ends, and includes any use of violence for the purpose of putting the public, or any section of the public, in fear.According to Hoffman, terrorism is ineluctably political in aims and motives, violence designed to have far-reaching psychological repercussions beyond the immediate victim or target conducted by an organization with an identifiable chain of command or conspiratorial structure whose members wear no insignia and are perpetrated by non-state entities or sub national group. History shows that terrorism has been in existence for long, what has changed in human nature with time is the degree and nature of the threat diversified by technology and information transfer. Crusification during the Antiquity are in History is considered terrorism, Guillotine during the Roman Empire regime is considered terrorism, Regicide during the French revolution was terrorism.Schmid (1983) compiled 109 academic definitions of terrorism, suggesting that there are many available definitions and versions in the field. There has been so far, no consensus given the heterogeneity of terroristic behaviours and the declared or assumed motivations. What is published is normally as a result of statements by the terror group leaders when they claim responsibility. However, it is important to note that two common elements usually find their way in to the contemporary definitions. Terrorism involves aggression against non-combatants, the terrorist action in not only expected by its perpetrator to accomplish a political goal but to also influence a target audience and change that audience’s behaviour in a way that will serve the interests of the terrorist. A humble definition for terrorism then may pass for, the use of violence or threats of violence to coarse or achieve ideological, religious, or political change. Whereas acts of terror are perpetuated to causing fear, criminal acts are for gains and power. Social disorganization theory explains both terrorism and criminal acts by stating how surroundings affect behaviour more than individual characteristics. Terrorism has been described variously as a tactic and strategy, a crime and a holy duty, a justified reaction to oppression and an inexcusable abomination. It all depends on whose point ofview is under interrogation. Terrorism has often been an effective tactic for the weaker side in a conflict because they least expect an attack and as they say ambush takes even the strongest.As an assumed form of conflict, it confers coercive power with many of the advantages of military force at a fraction of the cost. Due to the secretive nature and small size of terrorist organizations, they often offer opponents no clear organization and mechanism self-defense or to deter. Research has shown the typology of terrorism as very complex and controversial at the same time since the involved actors are characterized by multiple variables. Schultz (1980) proposes the seven variables which easily explain this.He examines the causes of terrorism, environment contusive for terrorism goals, strategies, means, organization and participation. Terrorists admit that they have adopted ruthless methods and tactics, but they consider themselves freedom fighters. As we discuss and define terrorism we can’t forget to include the psychology of terrorism. Robert Matron’s Strain theory explains the same. One question for us then is if terrorism is a crime like any other? One old phrase one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter. For terrorism to qualify as criminal, men’s rea, that is intent, actus reus and harm must be proved. Terrorism has a criminal intent thou not classified and coded for punishment. For example, in Kenya, it passes for capital offence with a bill still pending in parliament. Prevention of terror acts (POTA) holds here because prior to the action, there is intent and pre-planning. Tools of war are sourced in advance. Terrorism can be classified in five categories, State terrorism, Dissident terrorism, Religious terrorism, Criminal terrorism and International terrorism. Recruitment, planning stages, modus operandi, and harm as the end result qualify terrorism attacks for crime. This is why dadaab refugee camp in Kenya (Womb of terror) is being closed down. Discussion on terror cannot pass without mentioning the motivating factors for terrorism. (a) Fundamental Christian and Islamic views that have gained worldwide recognition in terms of planning and staging attacks in the name of Holiness. (b) Charismatics this is the ability to influence and recruit globally, examples of alshabaab, Boko haram, Isis and Al-Qaida just to name a few.(c) Modern technology used for satellite communication that assists in organizing, prior planning, and executing terror attacks. (d) Radicalization of the youth for heavenly promises, both terrorism and crime assume a symbolic end of human lives, destruction of property and collateral damage both create fear and uncertainty, physical trauma and catastrophic occurrence. Legally terrorism is criminal; the critical difference between a murderer and one who commits acts of terror is the intent and the desired outcome. What stands out in crime is that it is classified, coded and punishable as opposed to terrorism. Terrorism is criminal because of; (a) Causation of death and bodily harm. (b) Endangering life. (c) Posing a risk to the health and safety of the public. (d) Suicide and homicides. (e) Threatens the National society. All terrorists are criminals but not all criminals are terrorists, In defining terrorism, we will analyse types of terrorism; the motive for the terror attack is an emotion desire and psychological need that acts as an incitement to action. According to Martha Crenshaw, the motivating factors are simply opportunity for action, need to belong, desire for social status and accusation of material rewards.  This can also be summed up by Abraham Marsalaw’s pyramid of basic needs. Safety, love and belonging, self-esteem and top most self-actualization. Participants in terrorism include,? .The target, this is symbolically selected persons or target for    attack. ? .The onlookers who are seen as stereotyping and witnesses. ?. Analysts who gather data about the acts of violence. They determine whether it was actually terrorism, why and who is associated with. ?. The perpetrators the actual terrorists they selflessly sacrifice their lives to die with the targeted audience for heavenly promises. ? .The supporters those who sympathize and offer immaterial cooking and treating. Finally the victims are the soft targets who fall victims.However, the pathway or sequence to radicalization as perceived by Hoffman. Motive can’t be taken in isolation from opportunity, meaning that people follow a pathway into radicalization, into terrorism and into terrorism organizations. ‘Borum Randy’ similarly argues that the process begins by framing some unsatisfying event or conduct, as being unjust. The injustice is then blamed on a target policy, person or Nation. The responsible party is perceives as a threat and therefore vilified and often demonized which facilitates justification for aggression. He describes the development of extremist ideas and their justification for violence in four stages. ?. It is not right. this is the starting point of grievance or a feeling of dissatisfaction and or deprivation politically, economically, culturally, socio- cultural injustice. ?. It is not fair, this is perceptions of injustice which usually arise when one comes to view the aversive condition in a comparative un-equality, resources and comparison in one’s own expectations versus the reality. ? .It is your fault, according to Miller, if they themselves are victims of injustice, they assume it is someone else’s fault for their condition and blame is attributed to those who have accumulated and they now have a target. The stages above describe a mechanism for developing hate towards a group or institution followed by inhibition, stereotyping, dehumization and demonization There are at least five types of terrorism as indicated here,? .Criminal terrorism, this type of terrorism is for amassing wealth, ? .Religious terrorism, this is terrorism in the name of god, it is  violence motivated by an absolute belief that another worldly power has sanctioned and commanded terrorist violence for the greater glory of faith. ? .International terrorism, this is terrorism on the world’s stage, the targets are selected because of their value as symbols of international interest and the impact that attacks will have on global audience. ? .State terrorism is committed by governments and quasi-governmental agencies and personnel against perceived enemies. State terrorism can be directed to foreign adversaries or intentionally against domestic enemies.•    ? Dissident terrorism is committed by non-state movement groups including groups against perceived enemies or religious groups. Their methods range from large scale wars of national liberation to individual assassinations to strike down enemies for their cause, for example, the killers of Abraham Lincoln.All terrorists are extremists but not all extremists are terrorists, an extremist is one who deviates from the norm especially in politics. Ideologies that support terrorism have three common structural characteristics. They provide a set of beliefs that guide and justify a series of behavioural mandates. The beliefs must not be violable, not questionable nor questioned. The behaviours must be goal directed and seen as serving some cause or meaningful objective. Direction of activity is the basic dimension of interest is whether the focus is more on promotion of the cause or destruction of those who oppose it.Women captured, or voluntary joining terrorism have roles, they assume the roles of informants of the group, they become wives, some do surveillance duties. Those with Medical knowledge work as nurses. Some rise to high positions like the White Lady used to indoctrinate. We remember the White widows’ perpetrators of Chechenia. Some are used to nature children concealing identity and identity impostors. For example, in April 2014, 276 Boko Haram kidnapped female students were kidnapped from Chibok in Borno State. 57 of the schoolgirls managed to escape over the next few months We can’t complete defining terrorism without highlighting some goals of terrorism activities. The main goal is to create worldwide fear and obtain national and local recognition by attracting media attention. They are out to weaken, harass and embarrass security forces of the successfully attacked targets. They steal and extort money and military equipment especially weapons and ammunition for their operations. They discourage foreign investment and tourism of the attacked countries hence denting economy. They destroy facilities example is the he twin towers of 11/9 in the States and the Cooperative building in Kenya, disrupt lines of communication. They try to influence government decisions, legislation, and critical decisions. They free prisoners and satisfy vengeance.  Weak security for Kenya is a typical example; siege at the Garissa University lasted for 15 hours before the special rescue team arrived. They took 2 hours briefing let alone the small planes that could not accommodate the team and their equipment. Poor enumeration, Porus boaders and corruption has made Kenya an easy target for terrorism.In conclusion, discussing terrorism is as dynamic as terrorism itself as it keeps changing phases with the participants, time and technology. Acts that violate human rights and dignity are criminal; the media must display professionalism and patriotism when covering terror attacks. Counterterrorism strategies must be emphasized and punishment increased to outweigh intended gain and ideological statements. Following our definition, terrorism is criminal and should be condemned in the strongest terms possible.