Child with problem solving, gaining knowledge, facts

Child development is the term used to describe the process that a child
goes through in order to change and grow

In
child development there are 5 aspects of development which are Physical
Development, Emotional & Social Development, Cognitive Development and Language
Development.

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Emotional Development is the
term used to describe the emotional change in the developing child again from
pre-birth to adulthood. It is concerned with a wide range of feelings,
expression & emotions, including mental health of the developing child. Social Development is the term used to
describe the ability to understand attitudes, manners and rights/wrongs within

 other people and yourself. They need to
understand what is ‘acceptable’ in day to day life as it encourages them to
become responsible citizens and understand the wider community

 

Language development is the
linguistic change in the child. It supports the child’s ability to communicate
and express and understand feelings. From birth to the age of 5 children
develop language at a very fast pace, however the age that a child reaches each
language milestone varies.

 

Cognitive Development is the
term used to describe the intellectual change in the developing child. It is
concerned with problem solving, gaining knowledge, facts and understanding
concepts such as early maths and science. They need to understand about all
they do and in the wider world/communities & cultural contexts. They learn
facts about life, their lives, and make relationships between things.
Developing and acquiring cognitive life skills, such as overcoming
problems/difficulties; working things out; cause and effect; telling the time,
counting – handling money.

 

Physical Development is split
up into two sections, growth and development. Growth is the physical changes in
the child’s appearance such as weight and height. Development is when the child’s
body learns to do more complex skills which like riding a bike. Physical
Development is split up into Gross Motor skills and Fine motor skills

 

Progression
is when you improve and get better at something, by developing to an advance
state. It is the process that a young child makes from being a child to a young
adult. Within the first 3 months of a child being born they can only hold their
heads up for a couple of seconds while being on their front, they can open and
shut their hands and push their legs down onto a flat surface. Through the year
they then progress as by the age of 8 – 12 months the baby can now sit up
without support as their muscles have now grown strong enough to do so. At 15
to 18 months a typical toddler understands 10 times more words than they speak.
By the second birthday most toddlers can say at least 50 words.  Now at 5 years the child can now show good
balance by running and skipping, and possibly ride a bike without stabiliser,
they now have good co-ordination and can play on swings and climbing frames.
Their I a big progression between 5 years of age and 7 as a seven-year-old are
skilful in catching and throwing a ball, their stamina is now increased within
activities like swimming and gymnastics. By the age of 16 the child head, feet
and hands grow to adult size along with their arms and legs which grow I length

 

Milestones is when a
child has learned how to do something new. Different milestones may be walking,
talking or riding a bike. For many children they learn how to do something at
different ages, meaning not all children hit the same milestones at the same time.
It is not nessesary a bad thing

 

Norms’ are the usual
& expected elements of children’s development, this is used to identify and
assess progress for any areas for concerns. For example, by the time a child is
the 2 years of age, it is usual to expect them to have a wide range of early
vocabulary.

 

The sequence is the
process that the child will usually move through in order to develop skills or
grow and change.

 

Authoritative Parents – The relationship
is about building mutual trust and respect, both perspectives honoured and
communication flows bow ways.

Authoritarian Parents – Relationship
is about control, differing perspectives are not allowed, meaningful
communication generally flows both ways

Permissive Parents –  Relationship indulges the child and they have
little control.

Uninvolved/Neglected Parents –
Relationship is non-existent, no communication or parenting

 

These
different parenting styles can have a huge effect on the child and their development
for example Uninvolved/Neglected Parents will have a bad effect on the child,
the child may start to demonstrate antisocial behaviour which can lead to drug
and alcohol abuse, poor health, mental health problems, unemployment and adult
crime.

 

Genetics

Child
Development starts the minute your born. The chromosomes from  your parents will determine your genes.  Each new born baby contains 46 chromosomes, 23
from the mum’s egg and 23 from the dad’s sperm.  The genes and DNA will determine things such
as eye colour, physical appearance and height.

Genetic defects can also
be inherited from our parents these may cause deformity in the genes. Some Inherited Genetic Defects may include Cystic
Fibrosis, Sickle-cell, anaemia, Haemophillia, Cancer, Marfan Syndrome and Huntington’s
Disease

 

Dyspraxia (Developmental
Coordination Disorder)

This
disorder is 4 times more likely to affect boys than girls. It causes difficulty
in everyday movements and the child may  

appear
clumsy, they have difficulty in concentrating and there will be a delay in
early development milestones. There is no cure but with support, therapy and
learning new strategies children can overcome some of the daily challenges they
face.

 

Nature: The idea or
theory of those who believe that it is the way we are born, our genetic makeup
or hereditary characteristics which determines how children behave and develop.
This
includes traits such as eye colour and hair colour are determined by specific
genes encoded in each human cell. Also, abstract traits such as intelligence,
personality and aggression.

 

Nurture: The idea or
theory of those who believe that it is the way we encourage children and their
environment which determines how they behave and develop. This
includes environments such as your home, school, wider community and your
city/village or town. All the influences that impact you both positively and
negatively which change the way you think feel and behave.

 

A child having parents that have split can turn their
world upside down. The level of how upset the child is may vary on how bad the
split up was and the circumstances the child may be in as they might not be old
enough to know what is properly going on. The child may feel a sense of loss as
it feels like you have lost a parent and even a home which means your whole life
may be different. They may feel rejected, unloved and insecure. They may get
worried about picking a side and upsetting the other parent. Emotional
and behavioural problems in children are more common when their parents are
fighting or separating.

 

Having
an arrival of a new baby can affect
the child that they already have as the child will feel that the new baby is
taking over their role in the family. This may cause the child to dislike and
have rivalry with the new baby by behaving aggressively by pinching or poking
them or throwing things at them all because of jealousy.