CHAPTER provides not only an attractive working

CHAPTER
2

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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2.1 Review of Related Foreign
Literature and Case Studies

2.1.1 Project Title: Pasona
Tokyo Headquarters

       Project Location: Chiyoda,
Tokyo, Japan

Figure
1. Perspective of the façade of Pasona Tokyo Headquarters

                        Pasona Tokyo Headquarters
is a nine storey business office building for the Pasona group situated in the
business district of Tokyo, Japan. Pasona group chose to renovate a 50 years
old structure instead of constructing a new building. The headquarters
comprises of a green façade, office spaces, café, garden on the rooftop and
facilities dedicated for urban farming.

               

Figure2.
Façade of the Pasona Tokyo Headquarters

                        As shown in figure 2,
the façade is composed of flowers and orange plants. These plants create
distinct and lasting impression to the people passing by the headquarters. The façade
does not only serve as aesthetics but also gives shade and cover to the
interior spaces. With the use of hydroponic and soil-based farming, produce and
employees were able to stay in the same place. The system provides not only an
attractive working environment but also a healthy working environment which
could result into the productivity of the employees.

                        The approach used in the
façade of the headquarters can be adapted as a feature of the building. The
distinct feature of the façade would not only catch the attention of the public
but would also promote urban farming.

2.1.2 Project Title: AeroFarms
Indoor Vertical Farming

Location: Newark,
New Jersey, USA

Figure
3. 6504-square meter vertical farming facility of AeroFarms

                        Among the countries in
the world, AeroFarms has the biggest indoor vertical farm. By the word indoor,
this means that the company grows crops without the presence of sunlight and
without the use of soil. Aeroponic growing
system made the production of crops possible. The benefit of the system is that
the harvesting cycle was made faster with the desired outcome of the farmers.
The cycle is done without compromising the nutrition of the yields and without
harming the environment.

 

 

                       

Figure
4.Aeroponic Growing System

The good thing about using the same
system that the Aerofarms are using is that aside from being able to produce
massive yields, this also costs less usage of water which could result to
lesser expenses and a healthier environment. Also, vertical farming offers a
lot of advantages. Compared to the traditional farming, vertical farming could
produce yields in all seasons of the year. Aside from that, the production of
what the traditional farming could produce is increased by four to six factors
in vertical farming.

                        Aeroponic farming system
is a great system that can be adapted in the project. The system is a good
solution for the shortage of yields and as a preparation in the future when
lands are less available. Also, with the use of indoor farming, crops could
suffer less and could be protected from our changing climate.

2.1.3
Project Title: Eco Laboratory                                                     

Project
Location: Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.

            Eco laboratory
is said to be more than just a structure. The design envisions a greater
purpose wherein the culture, the economy, and the surroundings are merged as
one. The project also includes vertical farming which features sustainable
systems such as Earth tubes to convey clean air to the structure via ducts
underground, a garden with the hydroponic system to supply food for the
community, solar panels, and a system for rainwater collection.

            The concept considered the natural
ventilation through the use of earth tubes which draws fresh air inside the
building. On the north and east sides of the Eco-laboratory, the system of
double glazing provides natural lighting and insulation which lessens the heat
and light loads. On the other hand, greenhouses were placed on the south and
west sides of the building to gain heat coming from the sun.  

            The designers of the project focused
on the six factors of the Natural Building Challenge in order to come up with
the design. One of the factors considered is the site for the project. The
designers made the structure a more functional area wherein the community would
be satisfied. Landscapes outdoor were also taken into consideration and also
extended it with vegetation inside the building.  Another factor is the materials used. The
walls used is made up of a fiber-optic aggregate which aids the visibility of
the building’s system and gives way for light to come into the interior.

            In relation to the project,
promoting healthy indoors while protecting the environment is essential. The
earth tube system is a great concept for a ventilation of a building. The
system of passive ventilation lessens the energy consumption. As for the active
system, hydrogen fuels together with the biofuels can also be adapted for
producing more energy.

2.2 Review of Related Local
Literature and Case Studies

2.2.1
Project Title: Food Processing Innovation Center –
Davao Inc.

              Project Location: Matina,
Davao City, Philippines

        

        Figure 5. Façade of Philippine Women’s
Collegeof Davao

                Food Processing Innovation
Center – Davao Inc., is the first food processing innovation
center launched in the Philippines. The project envisions creating value-added
food products from agriculture and fishery by being the center for new methods
and technical support services for Davao’s industry in food processing. Through
this innovation center for food, the use of the local materials can be used in
full extent by transforming the simple agricultural yields into high value food
products. This can be sold to the supermarkets, malls, and can be exported to
the countries around the world. The center could also help in making the
production process faster and would upgrade the food and the quality of package
that could help in marketability.

The food processing
innovation center is located in the Philippine Women’s College of Davao. It is
accessible to the community which makes the manpower more available for the
supervision and managing the operation in the center.

Figure 9.
Water Retort

 

Figure 8.
Vacuum Packaging Machine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The collaboration
between the government and the academe is important to meet the efficient application
and distribution of technology. The food innovation center will offer services
such as testing of food, labelling and packaging design, consultation services,
lectures or seminars, and trainings. With the use of these services, the
Davao’s processors of food’s aim in meeting the global standards technology’s
processing would be achieved. The center also provides a vacuum evaporator,
freeze dryer, packaging machine, and an immersion freezer which would guarantee
a rapid process for cooling.

            Providing trainings and seminars can
be adapted to the project. The services are of great help for the local
residents of the proposed project. Conducting seminars regarding agricultural
farming and the processing of the yields into valued added products would help
local residents of Benguet to be aware of the possible career they could get
into. Training and seminar services would also raise awareness in the
importance of agricultural farming and the new technology that can be used.

2.2.2
Project Title: Institute of Plant Breeding

         Project Location: Los
Baños, Laguna, Philippines

  

Figure 10. Façade of
the Institute of Plant Breeding

On June 5, 1975, the
Institute of Plant Breeding was established by the virtue of Presidential
Decree 729. The institute has been in the lead of the research and application
of breeding of plants and has been known for crop biotechnology research. The
objective of the Institute of Plant Breeding is to expand the production of
root crop and industry by the reproduction of technologies and information from
the services provided in the institute.

The institute is
divided into six divisions. The first division is the crop improvement with the
function of assessing, improving, and expanding the varieties of crops. Mainly,
the division is in charge of providing services for the improvement of the
yields. Next to the crop improvement is the crop management and seed production.
The division’s function is to develop new production techniques and yielding
systems for the root crops. The third division is the postharvest, operation,
and utilization. The division’s role is to come up with waste management
systems, and new technologies that are suitable for the improvement harvest and
postharvest stage.

Architecture and
engineering is also an important division of the institute. This helps in
designing and developing low cost materials and equipment that will be used for
the yield production, postharvest, and operation. Next to the architecture and
engineering division is the socio-economics and policy division. The division
is responsible for conducting other related studies. Lastly, the training and
extension division leads in conducting seminars and conference regarding
rootcrops.

In relation to the
project, the research center would also be adapted to be able to conduct
studies for suitable technologies that can be used for strawberry production.
Conducting other related studies would also answer the problem for plant
propagation which would help in exporting tissue cultured crops. Also, research
centers are essential for the project as it would help in maintaining the
scientific needs of the farm.

2.2.3
Project Title: Aeroponic Vertical Farming

         Project Location: Banaue,
Ifugao, Philippines

Aeroponic Vertical
Farm is composed of the bamboo parallelograms that are created as a step for
the terraces. The proposal would not only help in producing rice in a rapid
scale but would also give way for the employment of the locals surrounding the
project. This would also answer the shortage of rice present in the city. Aside
from that this would also give way in creating a space where the individuals
could interact more.

In 2025, it is
expected that the demand for rice will continue to increase as the population
are also increasing. This led the government in East Asia to take control of
the operation of the production of rice. However, this would cause problems for
the farmer. In this point, aeroponic farming was then taken into consideration
to answer the problem in the production of the yields.

Aeroponics is the
method of growing yields through air or mist environment with the absence of
soil as a medium for farming. The system is considered to be safe and
environmental friendly for creating healthy yields. One of the advantages of
using aeroponic system is its capability in conserving water and energy. This
system is the right system to be used since it would cost less consumption of
water which that answers the problem in the shortage of water present in the
area.

Rice terraces have
been the inspiration for the irrigation system of the Aeropone Vertical Farm.
The irrigation of the rice terraces is mainly based from the topographical
conditions of the field; the logic is that from the peak of the terraces, water
simply flows down to the bottom.

                        In relation to the
project, the irrigation system can be adapted to the traditional farming area
of the proposed project. Through the proposed irrigation system, the aim to
consume less water could still be attained. Providing traditional farming area
must also be incorporated to the proposal so that the local residents and the
tourists who wants to experience traditional farming could still experience it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.2
Research Paradigm

 

                

                

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 11. Input Output Process
Diagram

                As
shown above in the figure 3, the input, process, and output diagram was used in
conducting the research. First, a research must be conducted on the internet to
find feasible projects in the Philippines. After several researches, the La
Trinidad Strawberry Hub was found and proposed in the province of Benguet
particularly in La Trinidad. The project is aligned with the Sustainable
Development Goals. Some information regarding vertical farming, other farming
technologies and information about green architecture can be found on the
internet. The product of the research is the La Trinidad Strawberry Farm. A
Trading and Educational Center of Strawberry Industry became the subtitle of
the project as it expounds the scope of the proposal.

2.3
Methods of Research Used

2.3.1 Descriptive Method

          Descriptive
research method generally gathers information which presents the conditions
that exists. The method is the collection of data that is being addressed in
explanatory manner. Descriptive methods have three types: the case-study,
survey, and observational. The case study method is a thorough study of an
individual or group of persons. The survey method on the other hand makes use
of interviews and questionnaires wherein people could participate in answering.
To make the survey valid, the questions used are made properly. Descriptive
research method can only describe a set of data that are collected. Lastly is the
observational method wherein a subject’s behaviour is being observed.

          The purpose of a descriptive method is
to describe, explain, and prove the data gathered. Using this method is easy as
it can be done through the basic concepts of the behaviour of human. Also, most
information gathered is done through this method.

          Descriptive method was applied in the
research to look for information that are needed to be applied in the project.
Through this method, new farming technologies and other related studies were determined.
The analysis, interpretation of the current phenomena, and the record were used
in meeting the goals of the research.

2.3.2 Historical Method

          Historical
method of research also known as historiography is the scientific method which
studies the individuals, group of individuals, events and phenomenas that
happened in the past which made a great influence to the present times. This
does not only give facts or dates but it also describes the reason behind the
phenomena. One of the aims of this method is to connect the current events to
the past events. This method can be applied in all kinds of study as it contains
the origin and the theories that are essential. Historical method would explore
the weaknesses and strengths from looking back in the past with its own proof.
Through this method, evidences and ideas can be formulated from the past.

          Historical research contains more than
just information, it also demands the interpretation of the data gathered. The
method is classified into primary and secondary sources. Primary sources are
the first-hand data, the original information, or a first-hand experience.
Secondary Sources comprises second-hand information. This is a description of
an event from an individual to an individual.

          This method was used determine the
history of La Trinidad with regards to how the farming of different crops was
introduced. The data gathered in relation to the culture and the history of the
crops and the municipality can be adapted to the museum that will be
incorporated to the project.

 

 

2.4
Sources of Data

2.4.1 Primary Sources

2.4.1.1 Romeo Salda (Mayor of La
Trinidad, Benguet)

                        The administration
approved the provision of the needed information such as the Comprehensive Land
Use Plan, Socio-Economic Profile, and the maps of the site for the project
proposal.

2.4.1.2 Sally Sacpa
(Administrative Aide VI of Planning and Project Development)

                        The
administrative aide of Planning and Project Development Section provided the
hard and soft copies of the Comprehensive Land Use Plan, Socio-Economic
Profile, and maps. Sally Sacpa also shared insights about the new zoning
ordinance that will be produced.

2.4.1.3 Benguet State University

The
university owns most of the land in the site of the project proposal. The
university gave information about the scope and some of the facilities that
would be present in the proposal. The administration also gave insights about
the problems that the industries of the yields are facing.

2.4.1.4 Valred Olsim

Valred
Olsim is one of the journalists who gave insights about the proposal’s
potential. Olsim gave way in raising awareness to the public about importance
of the farm in La Trinidad.

2.4.1.5 Ofelia Empian

Just
like Olsim, Ofelia Empian is a journalist who also took part in the seminar
regarding the new land use which would affect the proposal. Empian also gave
additional information about the land use plan and the zonings that are
discussed in the seminar.

2.4.2 Secondary Sources

2.4.2.1 Websites

Some
of the facilities that will be incorporated in the project came from the
proposals that are posted online. Also, some of the solutions that can be
adapted can be seen in some research on the internet.

 

 

2.5
Sampling Techniques Used

Systematic
sampling and stratified sampling technique were used in the project. With the
use of systematic sampling technique, random sampling a population is faster
and efficient. The technique can be done through selecting sample members in a
bigger population in a random beginning point and a constant interval. This
interval which is the sampling interval can be done by dividing the size of the
population with the wanted sample size. In stratified sampling, the population
was then divided into non-overlapping groups. The purpose of the method is to
guarantee adequate rendition of subjects in each class.

Both
systematic and stratified sampling technique was used in the project to provide
data with absolute information through the exact figures that were used in the
samples. This would ensure that the data given in the proposal are facts.

2.6
Data Gathering Procedure

Through
the primary and secondary sources, data needed for the research were attained.
Primary sources were able to share personal insights about the proposal.
Secondary sources on the other hand gave a deeper definition to the proposal. A
personal interview was conducted with the planning director of Benguet State
University who gave a short view of the universities’ land use plan. In the
municipal hall if La Trinidad, basic information regarding the location of the
project was given through the approval of the mayor.

Another
process for data gathering was also done with the help of articles found
online. All the data gathered was then combined and assessed further to come up
with a great solution for the problems faced by the projects such as the
shortage for the production of crops, the high consumption of energy and more.

2.7
Research Instrument Used

2.7.1 Interview

                   Government
officials were interviewed regarding the proposed hub that will be located in
La Trinidad. The officers gave insights about the problems that the farm is
facing. Farmers on the strawberry farm was also interviewed to give insights
about the personal farming experience and to give opinions of how farming would
be innovated. Local residents were also part of the interview as the residents
are also considered in the project.

2.7.2 Observation

Observation
and assessment about how the vertical farming is done were also taken into
consideration as it would take part on how the structure must be designed. The
behaviour of the farmers, tourists, and the individuals who are studying
agriculture were also observed to create a better solution that would satisfy
the said individuals.

2.7.3 Documents

Through
the use of the documents given in the municipality such as the Comprehensive
Land Use Plan, Socio-Economic Profile, and maps, the proposal was done.