CHAPTER-I INTRODUCTION In the present scenario, India

CHAPTER-I

INTRODUCTION

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 In the present scenario, India is facing a
rapid socio-economic, demographic, nutritional and health transition. Although
the country is yet to overcome the problems of poverty, undernutrition, over
nutrition and communicable diseases, it is now experiencing additional
challenges caused by industrialization, urbanization and economic betterment. The
incidence of cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases (such as
chronic obstructed pulmonary disease and asthma), diabetes, and hypertension is
rapidly increasing. Also, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking and
stress are some of the major contributors to the development and progression of
these chronic diseases. According the report in 2016 three of the five leading
causes of disease burden in India were non-communicable, with ischaemic heart
disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as the top two causes and
stroke as the fifth top cause. With the epidemiological alteration the burden
of non-communicable diseases have increased in kerala, Tamil Nadu and Goa.

The
current population of the world is increasing day by day. Several people are
malnourished and bound by poverty, mainly in Asia and Africa. Acc. to FAO about
840 million people are unable to meet their daily energy requirements from
their diets. Approximately 95% of this number lives in in the developing
countries of Asia and Africa.   About 40,000 people die daily due to lack of sufficient
and quality food in these countries and about 800 million people  suffer chronically from the consequences of
poor nutrition and millions are reported to have iron, iodine, and vitamin A
deficiencies .

So,
the present scenario of degenerative
diseases there is need to develop such strategies like complementary food, a
hygienic environment, access to preventive as well as curative health services
and good prenatal care that overcome the prevalence of malnutrition and risk of
various degenerative diseases by exploring the possibility of incorporating
novel ingredients in commonly consumed foods rather developing new products.
The use of the blends of different flours from cereals, legumes, tubers and
vegetables for production of different products to boost  the utilization of local crops as raw
materials and improve the nutritive quality of various food products. So, the
composite flour could be consider as cheap alternative flour to wheat flour.

(The composite flour technology has
been use for increasing the scarce of wheat or corn for production of bread or
other bakery products. Milner 2017). Composite flour is mixture of several ?ours obtained from root, tuber, cereal and legume
with or without the addition of wheat ?our which is created to satisfy speci?c
functional characteristics and nutrient composition and prevents various
diseases. Composite
flours are quite different from the ready-mixed flours familiar to millers and
bakers. Whereas ready-mixed flours contain all the non-perishable constituents
of the recipe for a certain baked product, composite flours are only a mixture
of different vegetable flours rich in starch or protein, with or without wheat
flour, for certain groups of bakery products. The composite flours containing
wheat flour usually consist of 70% wheat flour, 25% maize/cassava starch and 5%
soy flour. The composite flour promote the high- yielding, native plant
species, a better supply of protein for human nutrition and better overall use
of domestic agriculture production. The use of composite ?ours from cereals, legumes, tubers and leaves for
bakery production enhance the utilization of local crops as raw materials and
improve the nutritive quality of bakery products. Thus advantageous in the
sense that inherent de?ciencies of essential amino acids in wheat ?our (lysine,
tryptophan and threonine) are supplemented from other sources, better supply of
protein for human nutrition and better overall use of domestic agriculture
production. Soybean has superior nutritive value and its flour has 50% protein
and 5% fiber. It does not contain gluten. As a result, yeast-raised breads made with soy flour are dense in texture.
Among many uses, soy flour thickens sauces, prevents staling in baked food and reduces oil absorption
during frying. Baking food with soy flour gives it tenderness, moistness, a
rich color and a fine texture. Oats are now well acknowledged for their
functional attributes because of high total dietary fibre and ? glucan which
lower the blood cholesterol, glucose and insulin concentration. It possess
excellent moisture retention properties so, it is also used in production of
bakery goods. The base material of wheat is used for the preparation of various
bakery products.

           Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the major food produce among all the cereal
crops. It is a main staple food of large segment of world population. Wheat is
extensively used for production of flat breads such as the steam-leavened
chapatti, a major source of nutrients and staple diet common to Pakistan, India
and some parts of Africa. About 85% of wheat consumption in India is in the
form of chapattis. Wheat contains all basic nutrients but is deficient in
essential amino acid i.e. leucine and phenyalanine and their bran portion are
highly rich in protein, vitamin, minerals and dietary fibre but during milling
of wheat the water soluble vitamins, proteins and dietary fibre is lost.

Legumes have been known as ”a poor
man’s meat”. They supply protein, complex carbohydrates, fibre and essential
vitamins and minerals to the diet, which are low in fat and sodium and contain
no cholesterol. Legumes are highly rich in protein and have low – glycemic
index carbohydrates, essential micronutrients and fiber. One of is soybean
which is a cheap source of quality protein, which is superior to all other
plant food because it has a good balance of all essential amino acid and
contains a proper amount of methionine. The plant protein that can be used to
improve the diets of millions of people mainly low income groups in developing
countries.  So, they facilitate in normal
growth and development. They can also help to manage the level of cholesterol, blood sugar and
body fats, when consumed in adequate quantities but they are also deficient in
some essential amino acid methionine and tryptophan.  So, some nutrients are present in wheat not in
legumes and vice –versa. In order to reduce the risk of diseases mutual
supplementation is required like wheat and pulses together supplement and
should be consumed daily in the diet with fortification of essential nutrients.
Thus, a combination of legumes with grains forms a well-balanced diet to prevent
various diseases.

So, soybean is good source of protein, which
complement with the wheat flour in production of baked products and other
products which help in improving the nutritional status of the final product.

 Oats
is considered as secondary crop that is derived from a weed of the primary cereal domesticates wheat and barley.
Oat is
consumed as a whole grain cereal and it is a valuable part of our daily diet
and it is also highly rich in soluble fibres and lowers the risk of several
chronic diseases.  About 20-30% fresh fruits and vegetable are
lossed during post harvest stages. Our country is largest producers of
vegetables and fruits in the world after china .  Pumpkin are the most impotant vegetable grown
in all over India. belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae.
Pumpkins are extensively grown in tropical and subtropical countries. The
pumpkin leaves are considered as underutilized part of plant, people generally
discard leaves as such because they generally consume their vegetable part but
not leafy part which is highly rich in all nutrients especially calcium,
protein, iron, low in fat and highly rich in antioxidants which help in
scavenging free radicals and  overcome
the risk of various diseases. The pumpkin has vast scope for diversification
and utized in the production  The leaves
of pumpkin are highly rich in all nutrients like protein (4.6g), calcium
(392mg), iron (2.0mg), Vitamin A (288?g), Vitamin C (28mg) and also rich in
antioxidants. Pumpkin leaves have high fiber content (13.71%) than the raw and
roasted seeds (3.71% and 3.63%) respectively. Sodium is involved in the
regulation of plasma volume, acid-base balance, nerve and muscle contraction.
The magnesium content ranges between 120.0mg/100g and 288.65mg/100g. Wheat,
legumes (soybean), oats and pumpkin leaves are highly rich in all nutrients. Increasing
incidence of communicable diseases such as diabetes, cancers and heart ailments
call for changes in dietary patterns and shift towards food that provide much
more than nutrition. This identifies the need for shift towards foods that
provide much more than nutrition and have therapeutic value. Hence, composite
flour can be one of the alternatives.

            Composite
flour is mixture
of several ?ours obtained from root, tuber, cereal and legume with or without
the addition of wheat ?our which is created to satisfy speci?c functional
characteristics and nutrient composition and prevents various diseases. Composite flours are quite different
from the ready-mixed flours familiar to millers and bakers. Whereas ready-mixed
flours contain all the non-perishable constituents of the recipe for a certain
baked product, composite flours are only a mixture of different vegetable
flours rich in starch or protein, with or without wheat flour, for certain
groups of bakery products. The composite flours containing wheat flour usually
consist of 70% wheat flour, 25% maize/cassava starch and 5% soy flour. The
composite flour promote the high- yielding, native plant species, a better
supply of protein for human nutrition and better overall use of domestic
agriculture production. The use of composite ?ours from cereals, legumes, tubers and leaves for
bakery production enhance the utilization of local crops as raw materials and
improve the nutritive quality of bakery products. Thus advantageous in the
sense that inherent de?ciencies of essential amino acids in wheat ?our (lysine,
tryptophan and threonine) are supplemented from other sources, better supply of
protein for human nutrition and better overall use of domestic agriculture
production. Soybean has superior nutritive value and its flour has 50% protein
and 5% fiber. It does not contain gluten. As a result, yeast-raised breads made with soy flour are dense in texture.
Among many uses, soy flour thickens sauces, prevents staling in baked food and reduces oil absorption
during frying. Baking food with soy flour gives it tenderness, moistness, a
rich color and a fine texture.Oats are now well acknowledged for their
functional attributes because of high total dietary fibre and ? glucan which
lower the blood cholesterol, glucose and insulin concentration. It possess
excellent moisture retention properties so, it is also used in production of
bakery goods. The base material of wheat is used for the preparation of various
bakery products.

            Wheat flour contains a limited amount of
?-carotene which is considered as precursor of vitamin a which is available in
variety of fruits and vegetable. An attempt has been made to enhance the level
of ? – carotene in bakery product by using pumpkin leaf powder as a source of
?-carotene. Composite flour technology for wheat
supplementation with protein rich materials like soybean and pumpkin leaf
powder is good technique to overcome the malnutrition and various risk factors.
Composite flour is helpful in reducing cholesterol level by reducing rate of
very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein(LDL) and
increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL), lowering blood sugar level,
strengthening antioxidant defence system and reduces the risk of various
degenerative diseases. Therefore, the present study would be carried out to develop various
value added products using composite flour and optimum level of substitution of
antioxidant rich pumpkin leaf powder which will improve the nutritional value
of products in terms of overall quality, chewing properties, appearance and
shelf life.

 The
use of composite flour based on wheat, other cereals such as millets in
production of bakery products is becoming so popular because of economic and
the nutritional benefit of this flour. 
So, an attempt was made to develop wholesome and nutritious foods by
blending the whole wheat, legumes and pumpkin leaves. (Oyenuga Y A 1968).

The recently the focus of interest and
significant efforts has been in the development of food products from the
cheap, local sources and under- utilized agricultural products , plants
–”wealth from waste”. Such utilization embarks on production of various  new food products by maximizing the available
sources to contribute the recommend dietary intake to fulfil the consumer
expectations.