Amarri were being racially oppressed in the

Amarri HarrisMr. Sheffield English III17 November 2017Black FeminismIf women are allegedly bossy and prone to getting hurt easily, then why are black women treated as “mules” and assigned heaviest occupations? If good mothers are supposed to stay at home with their children, then why are black women in the U.S. on government funded programs forced to find jobs and leave their children in the hands of other human beings? If women’s highest calling is to become mothers, then why are black teen mothers pressured to use various types of birth control? These questions have spurred U.S. black women to generate a more specialized team, namely, Black Feminism. Nonetheless, motivated by the quest for social justice, Black Feminist inquiry provides a wide range of perspectives on the diversity of black women and their roles in Black Feminism, how far black women have advanced, and how global feminism reformed the world.      “The Black Feminist Movement grew out of, and in response to, the Black Liberation Movement and the Women’s Movement. In an effort to meet the needs of black women who felt they were being racially oppressed in the Women’s Movement and sexually oppressed in the Black Liberation Movement, the Black Feminist Movement was formed. All too often, “black” was equated with black men and “woman” was equated with white women. As a result, black women were an invisible group whose existence and needs were ignored”(But Some of Us Are Brave: A History of Black Feminism in the United States).                                                                    Black Feminism is an organization that consists of a diverse group of black women. Groups ranging from same-gender-loving women to priests, poets, and educators aided in this movement. One woman,  Anna Pauline Murray or better known as Pauli Murray, was a black feminist that was a lesbian. She was arrested in 1940 for refusing to move to the back of the bus, protesting a Virginia law requiring segregation on public transportation. She also co-founded the National Organization for Women in 1966. Anna Murray spent much of her life breaking down the barriers of race and gender in the fight for equality. Such great women derived from her beliefs.  The next black feminist was Patricia Hill Collins. Collins’ work primarily concerns issues involving feminism and gender within the African-American community. She first came to national attention for her book “Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness and the Politics of Empowerment”, originally published in 1990.  “Black feminist thought demonstrates Black women’s emerging power as agents of     knowledge. By portraying African-American women as self-defined, self-reliant individuals confronting race, gender, and class oppression, Afrocentric feminist thought speaks to the importance that oppression, Afrocentric feminist thought speaks to the importance that knowledge plays in empowering oppressed people. One distinguishing feature of Black feminist thought is its insistence that both the changed consciousness of individuals and the social transformation of political and economic institutions constitute essential ingredients for social change. New knowledge is important for both dimensions of change” (Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought in the Matrix of Domination 1990). Patricia Hill Collins has been the head of the Department of African-American studies at the University of Cincinnati. She was elected 100th president of the American Sociology Association Council. She was the first African-American woman to hold this position.  Following this was Beverly Guy-Sheftall. A pioneer of black feminism in the 1960s, she took the helm of black feminist studies, raging against strong sentiments that positioned black feminism as obsolete once black women gained access to the labor force. Since then she has worked tirelessly to institute black feminist studies as a legitimate discipline, and continues to do so as the founder and director of the Women’s Research and Resource Center at Spelman College. She co-founded SAGE: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women in 1983. She taught at Spelman University, providing leadership to create the first Women’s Major at a historically black college. Guy-Sheftall was never scared to take the brave action necessary for change or for taking on fashion risks. The final black feminist was Alice Walker. She was one of the most admired African-American writers. Alice Walker brought black women’s lives into primary focus as a rich and important subject for US American literature. Her landmark novel The Color Purple (1982) made Walker famous the world over and brought her the first Pulitzer Prize for fiction awarded to an African American woman, as well as the National Book Award. Most of her work was inspired by her mother and their life struggles. “I grew up believing there was nothing, literally nothing, my mother couldn’t do once she set her mind to it. So when the women’s movement happened, I was really delighted because I felt they were trying to go where my mother was and where I always assumed I would go” (Alice Walker)How has having a specialized team such as Black Feminism changed the world’s view on black women today? Exactly how far have black women come from the struggles of the past? In 1940, sixty percent of employed black women worked as domestic servants. The number is down to 2.2 percent today. Sixty percent now hold white-collar jobs. In 1958, forty-four percent of whites said they would move if a black family lived beside them. Today that number is only one percent. Last but not least, in 1964, only eighteen percent of whites claimed to have a friend that is black. Today, eighty-six percent of white people have black friends and eighty-seven percent of black people have white friends. African American women, who make up 13 percent of the female population in the United States, are making significant strides in education, participation, health, and other areas, but there is a long way to go to fully close the racial and ethnic disparities they face. Black Feminism also thrives not only in the United States but across the globe. African Feminist Forum is a biennial conference that brings together African Feminist activists to deliberate on issues of key concern. The first conference was held in November 2006 in Accra, Ghana. Around 2000, the third wave of Feminism in France took interest in the relations between sexism and racism and with a certain amount of studies dedicated to Black Feminism. The Black Feminism Forum is a global movement building process co-created by Black Feminist artists, activists, and creators that culminated in the gathering. Also, a reading circle was launched on June 3, 2014 to explore, reflect, and share reactions to fiction or nonfiction books in dealing with black people. There are other global gatherings that take place in Bahia, Brazil where over two hundred Black Feminists come together to meet and greet. Movements in the global digital communities are working towards the realization of a feminist internet. Young feminists lead organizations such as HOLA! Africa whose organizing affords women in all their diversity the virtual space to express their lived realities, build community, embrace new technologies and dismantle patriarchy by elevating alternative narratives. Black feminist groups across Brazil, such as Geledés – Black Women’s Institute, are breaking with traditional forms of political participation and designing new strategies to guide Brazilian society away from patriarchal fundamentalism. Through their organisations, they are building a feminist future in line with concept of “Living Well”, reflecting the utopia of a full life, with dignity, justice and pleasure. Each different organization reforms and helps other countries on Black Feminism. All of these groups fight for what is right or what they believe in.In the final analysis, Black Feminism has been around for years and years. They believe in what is right and what is equal. Equal opportunity is everything to black women. Today’s society is not equal at all. Although some black women may have high-earning jobs, this does not mean they actually get paid what they are supposed to paid or as equal to the typical white male. Until that day comes, black women are often pushed to sidelines like they are not smart enough to do the job. Black women are capable of doing a specific job just as well as white women. Equal opportunity is only right. If black women were treated fairly in the past, would today’s society for a typical black woman change drastically for the better or for the worst? Nonetheless, motivated by the quest for social justice, Black Feminist inquiry provides a wide range of perspectives on the diversity of black women and their roles in Black Feminism, how far black women have advanced, and how global feminism reformed the world.Works CitedPatricia Hill Collins | SOCY l Sociology Department l University of Maryland,