: Increasing fuel prices and
pollution are the major demerits of Internal Combustion (IC) engines. Also
presently the demand for fuel has increased and in the nearby future, shortage
of fossil fuels is being expected due to the ever growing consumption. So need
of alternative energy has become necessary.
Hence aim of this paper is to design and fabricate an electrically
operated engine, i.e. Electromagnetic engine. Moreover solar energy is used as
the source for this engine. The working principle of the engine is the magnetic
force principle, i.e. magnetic repulsion between the same poles of two
different magnets. A set of Electromagnets and a Permanent magnet i.e. Piston
are used to achieve this. An electromagnet is placed at the top of the cylinder
which repels the Piston during the downward stroke. Another set of
electromagnets are placed along the cylinder wall which repels the Piston
during the upward stroke alone. This procedure completes one revolution of Crank
shaft i.e. our output work. The total power supplied by Battery will be just to
fulfil the Copper losses of winding and power required to magnetize the
windings. The Electromagnet is energized by a rechargeable battery source of
suitable voltage and the polarities of Electromagnet are set in such a way that
it will repel the Permanent magnet. The battery can either be recharged by
solar power or through Electric power. Thus this engine helps to achieve Zero
point fuel consumption.
With the diminishing fossil fuel
resources and unabated increase in energy costs and environmental concerns,
engines using alternate energy sources such as bio-fuel, solar power, wind
power, electric power, stored power, etc. are being developed around the world.
However, such engines have many limitations. Production of bio-fuel takes
enormous resources and they still pollute the environment. They do not meet the
ever increasing energy demand as well. Similarly, the solar power is not
efficient. Added to all, the initial capital and subsequent maintenance costs
for machines that use alternate energy sources are very high. Hence, in the
absence of a viable alternative, until now, switching to new technology by
changing from traditional Internal Combustion engines has been a challenge.
Magnetism is the
basic principle of working for an electromagnetic engine. The general property
of magnet i.e. attraction and repulsion forces is converted into mechanical
work. A magnet has two poles. A north pole and a south pole. When like poles
are brought near each other they repel and attract when like poles are brought
together. This principle is being used in the electromagnetic engine
In this engine,
the cylinder head and wall contains electromagnet and a permanent magnet is
attached to the piston head. When the electromagnet at the top is charged, it
repels the piston downwards and when the electromagnets around the walls charged
it pushes the piston upwards thereby rotating the crankshaft. This is how power
is generated in the electromagnetic engine. It utilizes only repulsive force
that allows the field to dissipate completely. The electromagnetic engine
should ideally perform exactly the same as the internal combustion engine. The
power of the engine is controlled by the strength of the field and the strength
of the field is controlled by the amount of windings and the current that is
being passed through it. If the current is increased the power generated by the
engine also increases accordingly. The current that is used to charge the
electromagnet is taken from a DC source like a lead acid battery.
advantages of electromagnetic engine are that it is pollution free. Also it is
easy to design an electromagnetic engine because there are no complicated
parts. Since the engine doesn’t have combustion, valves, water cooling system,
fuel pump, fuel lines, air and fuel filters and inlet and exhaust manifolds
etc. can be eliminated from the engine. The main challenge faced in designing
an electromagnetic engine is that it has to be as efficient as an internal
Electromagnetic engine uses
only magnets for its operation. A series of electromagnets are arranged along
the inner sides of the Piston. The cylinder must take care of unwanted magnetic
field. The temperature within the electromagnetic engine cylinder is very low
and so no fins are needed for heat transfer. This makes the cylinder easily
manufacturable. Also the cylinder is made of aluminum, a non-magnetic material
which limits the magnetic field within the boundaries of cylinder periphery.
Usage of aluminium material makes the engine lighter unlike the cast-iron
cylinder used in internal combustion engine.
The hollow piston casing is
made up of non-magnetic stainless steel, titanium or similar materials of high
resistivity and low electrical conductivity. Alternatively, piston casing can also be made
up of non-metallic, thermal resistant materials as well or can be made by
integrating both nonmagnetic and non-metallic materials. Top end of the hollow
case is fitted with a powerful permanent magnet made of neodymium-iron-boron
(NdFeB), samarium-cobalt (SmCo) or similar high field strength magnetic
materials. The permanent magnet acts as the core of the piston. The flat
surface (which is also the pole of the magnet) of the piston that is nearer to
the pole of the electromagnet is called the magnetic head of the piston or
piston head. The flat surface of the piston head may be completely exposed or
it may be covered by a thin layer of non-magnetic material of sufficient
thickness. The other end of the piston case connects to the piston rod that
connects to the crankshaft. The crankshaft and the piston rod convert the
linear reciprocating movement of the piston to the circular movement.
In a reciprocating
engine, the connecting rod is used to connect the piston to the crankshaft. It
converts the linear motion or reciprocating motion of the piston to the
circular motion of the crankshaft. The connecting rod used in this engine is
that of a power sprayer. The material of the connecting rod is cast iron. As
the magnetic fields are contained inside the cylinder, the connecting rod will
not be affected much. The connecting rod is same as that of an Internal
Combustion engine. No modification is required.
Flywheel is made
up of mild steel and it is used to convert reciprocating energy into rotational
energy. It regulates the engine’s rotation, making it operate at a steady
speed. Flywheels have a significant moment of inertia and thus resist changes
it rotational speed. The amount of energy stored in a flywheel is proportional
to the square of its rotational speed. Energy is transferred to the flywheel by
applying torque to it. It is used to store the rotation kinetic energy.
electromagnetic coil is formed when an insulated solid copper wire is wound
around a core or form to create an inductor or electromagnet. When electricity
is passed through a coil, it generates a magnetic field. One loop of wire is
usually referred to as a turn or a winding, and a coil consists of one or more
turns. For use in an electronic circuit, electrical connection terminals called
taps are often connected to a coil. Coils are often coated with varnish or
wrapped with insulating tape to provide additional insulation and secure them
in place. A completed coil assembly with one or more set of coils and taps is
often called the windings.
A relay is an
electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates
a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The
coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and most have
double throw (changeover) switch contacts. Relays allow one circuit to switch a
second circuit which can be completely separate from the first. For example a
low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit.
There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits;
the link is magnetic and mechanical.
G. TIMER 555IC :
The 555 timer IC
is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation,
and oscillator applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as an
oscillator, and as a flip-flop element. Derivatives provide up to four timing
circuits in one package. Introduced in 1972 by Signetics, the 555 is still in
widespread use, thanks to its ease of use, low price, and good stability.
Where high values of load
current are necessary, the lead acid cell is the type most commonly used. The
electrolyte is a dilute solution of sulphuric acid (H?SO?). In the application
of battery power to start the engine in an auto mobile, for example, the load
current to the starter motor is typically 200 to 400A One cell has a nominal
output of 2.1V, but lead-acid cells are often used in a series combination of
three for a 6-V battery and six for a 12-V battery. The battery can either be
recharged through solar power or through electric power.
working of the electromagnetic engine is based on the principle of magnetism. A
magnet has two poles a north pole and a south pole. Magnetism is a class of
physical phenomenon that includes forces exerted by magnets on other magnets.
By principle of magnetism, when like poles of a magnet is brought together they
repel away from each other. When unlike poles are brought near each other they
attract. This is same for the case of an electromagnet and a permanent magnet
too However,instead of using permanent magnets, the principle of electromagnetism is
used to create strong and large temporary magnets. When an electric current is
passed through a coil of wire, magnetic field is generated around the coil
according to Faraday’s laws.. So the idea is to modify the
piston head and cylinder head and walls into magnets so that force can be
generated between them.
This working of
the electromagnetic engine is based on attraction & repulsive force of the
magnet. The engine greatly resembles the working of a two-stroke engine. To
start, let us begin from the situation, when piston is located in the BDC, i.e.
in the lower
position. The coil in the cylinder head is connected through the battery, the
copper coil is energized to produce the magnetic field so that the coil repels
the piston with a greater force. This forces the piston to move from TDC to
BDC, i.e. Piston completes downward force.
Upward stroke is
achieved by the series of alternating pole magnets placed along the cylindrical
walls. The magnet in front is pulling with an attracting (opposite)
magnetic pole and the magnet in back is pushing with a repulsing (similar)
magnetic pole. Thus the piston moves upwards with a large repelling force.. These
pull the Piston from the front and push it from behind. These pull and push
forces together helps the piston to move from BDC to TDC, i.e. Piston completes
magnet is fixed in the piston and iron material is connected to copper coil. So
that the iron material is converted into electromagnet when the power supply is
given to it. The copper coil is energized to produce the magnetic field.
the current is increased, the electromagnetic force also increases and the
piston moves up and down with a greater speed. It is shown in the following
graph of Coil current Vs. Electromagnetic force.
Force exerted by electromagnet on piston,
F1 = (N2 I 2KA)/2G2
N = number of turns
I = Current flowing through coil
K = Permeability of free space = 4?×10-7
A = Cross-sectional area of electromagnet
G = Least distance between electromagnet and
Force exerted by
permanent magnet Force,
Where, B = Flux density (T)
A = Cross-sectional area of magnet
µ 0 = Permeability of free space = 4?×10-7.
forces F1 and F2 are calculated for both upward and downward strokes.
= Br /2*(D + z)/(R2 + (D + z)2 ) 0.5 – z/(R2 + z 2 ) 0.5 (3)
Where, Br = Remanence
z = distance from a pole face
D = thickness of magnet
R = semi-diameter of the magnet.
= F 1 + F2
= F × r
Where F = total force on piston
= crank radius
Energy stored on
= T × ?
Where T = torque
= Angle of rotation
= 0.5 × I × ? 2
Where, I = moment of inertia of
? = angular velocity
Moment of inertia
I = 0.5
× m × r 2
Where, m = mass of fly wheel
r = radius of fly wheel
P = (2?NT)/60
N = speed
(Output/Input) × 100 (10)
can be minimized to a maximum extent because of the electromagnetic concept.
current required for the operation is obtained through solar panels , hence
this engine is 100% eco-friendly.
on cooling system is comparatively low.
loss is low and hence reduced wear and tear
The electromagnetic engine has various advantages
over the internal combustion engines. The main advantage is, no fuel is being
used in the engine. This results in no pollution which is very desirable in the
present day situation. As there is no combustion taking place inside the
cylinder there is only very little heat generation. This eliminates the need
for a cooling system. As magnetic energy is being used the need for air filter,
fuel tank, supply system, fuel filter, fuel injector, fuel pump, valves etc.
are eliminated and the design of the engine is made simple. Also by the use of
materials like Aluminum, titanium etc. we can reduce the weight of the engine.
Also existing transmission systems can be used in the electromagnetic engine.
Less noise is produce during working.
The disadvantage of the electromagnetic engine is
its high initial cost. The electromagnet and permanent magnet can be very
costly. Also the power of the permanent magnet will decrease during time and
the permanent magnet has to be replaced during regular intervals. The engine is
not as flexible as the internal combustion engine. The power source is battery.
The number of batteries will vary according to the requirement. In high power
engines, the number of batteries will increase which may increase the total
weight of vehicle and consume a lot of space.
usage of relay and timer will limit the output of the engine. By using an ECU
in the engine instead, power can be obtained on each stroke which will result
in an increased output. Also, by inserting more permanent magnets in series on
the piston will enhance the output of the engine.
this engine can be practically used in automobiles. In cars solar panels can be
used to charge the battery instead of depending on available electricity which
indirectly pollutes the environment as they are produced by burning fossil
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