1. Temporary employment
This is when a worker is engaged only for a finite length of time. Temporary work includes fixed-term, project- or task-based contracts, seasonal work and casual work, including day labour. For an example, Akash works as a day labourer on a construction site. He must arrive at the site early each morning to be certain of securing a day’s work. When Isabelle left school last summer, she found a job in a warehouse on a three-month contract. She hopes that her contract will be renewed at the end of the month.
2. Part-time employment
People in part-time employees work fewer hours than people in comparable full-time employment. Part-time employment can allow certain workers to combine work with child rearing, studies or training. However, working hours can sometimes be very short and unpredictable, as in the case of zero-hours contracts. For an example, Nathalie works in an office, but she found it difficult to combine a full-time job with caring for her two small children. This year, she has been working part-time. She finds the situation less stressful, although not ideal financially. Carlos is a fast-food worker. He was employed under a zero-hours contract and not scheduled to work for three weeks in a row at one point, receiving no pay during this time. Recently, his union negotiated a collective agreement guaranteeing 24 hours of work per week.
3. Multi-party employment
This is when a worker is paid by one company – a temporary work agency or subcontractor – but performs work for another company at its place of business. There is usually no employment relationship between the worker and the company to which he or she provides their services. For an example, Pranav works on the assembly line of a major electronics producer. Some of his fellow workers are employed by the company, but he was sent there through a temporary agency. The agency is legally his employer, but the factory supervisor directs his work.
4. Disguised employment
Disguised employment is when workers are hired as independent contractors but their work is monitored by their supervisors as though they were employees. The real nature of the working relationship is hidden to bypass labour regulations. For an example, Paul was employed as a mason in a small construction company. One day, his employer told him that they could no longer afford to pay social security contributions on his salary. To save costs, Paul was fired, but then immediately engaged as a contractor by the same company to perform the same type of work as before. Paul no longer has a holiday or sick leave entitlements and is now responsible for securing his own health insurance and pension.
5. Dependent self-employment
Dependent self-employment is a grey area. It is when workers perform services for a business under a commercial contract but depends heavily on a small number of clients for their income. They are legally independent but economically dependent. For an example, Leia has been working as the principal graphic designer for a mid-size clothing brand for two years, but she does not have an employment contract. She receives most of her income from this company and devotes most of her time to them. The company often calls her to request last minute changes, making it difficult for her to take on any new clients.