When antigens enter into the body, normally this antigen will be recognized by the antibody that has been generated before during first exposure. The antibody binds to the soluble antigen forming the antibody-antigen complexes in the circulation in order to clear up all of the pathogens. According to Levinson (n.d), the reticuloendothelial system or macrophages system and other phagocytes have the ability to remove the immune antibody-antigen complexes very effectively in a normal condition. However, in type III hypersensitivity, these systems are not capable to remove these complexes. As a result, this antigen-antibody complexes tends to deposit on the wall of the blood vessels. Some of the immune complex deposition on the blood vessel will activate the complement protein such as C1, C4, C3 and C5-9 resulting membrane attack complex, leukocytes chemotaxis, leukocytes polymorphism and phagocytosis as well as inflammation. So that, in classical pathway C1 binds to the antigen-antibody complex and become activated C1. The activated C1will activate C4 and C2 resulting C3 convertase. This C3 convertase play a vital role as it will activate the third component of complement system which is C3 component and this C3 component is further cleaved by C3 convertase into C3a and C3b. Then binding of the C3b to the C3 convertase will result the formation of the C5 convertase and this C5 convertase able to split C5 complement protein leading to formation of C5a and C5b. This C5b will bind to C6-9 resulting membrane attack complex that is capable to make a hole in the membranes of invading microbes leading to lysis of the microbes ( Robbins, Kumar and Cotran, 2013, pg46-47 ). This mechanism is illustrated in the picture 1. However, C5a and C3a that are formed and released can attract the neutrophils and activate mast cell degranulation. C5 complement system plays a chemotactic agent by attracting the neutrophils and this neutrophil can produce the enzyme that could damage the endothelial cells of the blood vessels resulting release of the red blood cell from the blood vessels. This can be proven by Robbins, Kumar and Cotran (2013) who stated that, activation of the leukocytes at the antibody-antigen complex deposition result the production and release of the lysosomal enzyme and reactive oxygen species. These kinds of substances can lead to the adjacent tissue injuries. On top of that, C5a and C3a also act as anaphylatoxin substances which could cause mast cell degranulation. The extreme neutrophil action and mast cell degranulation causes Type III hypersensitivity.
Space and politics are antinomic terms. Laclau (1990) argues that the existence of politics will only happened when the spatial avoid us. Based on the conceptualization of Laclau , social will be formed as long as the space fixes its meaning and serves as a means of closure. However, Massey (1999) suggests the ignorance of the movement, struggle and transformative resulting the ignorance of the relationship between politics and space. Furthermore, space can be seen as the appliance and purpose of conflicts, struggle and political stake (Lefebvre, 2000). The space can be divided into dominant space which is the designer’s space and dominated space which is the experienced space. However, this domination of space originate mainly from the domination related to the social relationships of capitalist production (Busquet, 2013). Lefebvre (2000) also analyse the concept of space being an intermediary for the struggle of different class and institutionalized divisions. The struggle found in the space may be seen as symbolic as well as violent because space is the competition for different classes and social groups. As space is one of the stakes in struggle, it results to the idea of space is political. Far from being only as a simple intermediary of social activities, space has become an intermediary for conflicting social representations and strategies. Furthermore, Harvey (1989) suggests the history of territorial organisation, unequal development, conflict between rural and urban, and also the geopolitical conflict indicates to the importance of such struggle of the history of capitalism. The flexibility of capitalism in building and rebuilding the relationship between the space and the global space economy that form the world market is the reason why capitalism has survived into the twentieth century. And once again, Lefebvre (2000) indicates that space is the ultimate orbit and medium of struggle and is thus an important political issue. As we can see, much of the spatial language cope with controversy, conflict and the output and this reflects to the actual experience and usage of the space. Lefebvre (2000) argues that the pure and apolitical space has been built and framed by natural as well as historical elements by the way of political process. As the result, space is arguably a social and political product.
APPLICATION OF SMART SENSORS IN REDUCING ENERGY USAGE IN AIR CONDITIONING
In this elaborated study, the amount of energy used for air conditioning and ventilation is reduced using cell phones, wearable gadgets, detectors that detect temperature and human motion by integrating them as smart sensors. Cell phones, smart wearable gadgets and portable devices placed on human body or integrated with the building structure provide feedbacks to the advanced newly built smart sensors. The data or information given by these can be used to adjust (increase or decrease) air conditioners and ventilation systems in advanced to the tenant’s intentions or activities. Results using this technology show that the indoor temperature can be controlled faultlessly with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. After occupants enter a room, fast chill off or cooling down can be obtained within 2 to 3 minutes to the indoor capacity. Also the total compressor yield or output of the smart air conditioner can be reduced by than that of the particular case using On-Off control. The advanced smart air conditioner could determine the sleeping state and human temperature during sleep using wearable or portable gadgets and adjust the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping or rest function optimized by the smart aeration and cooling system with wearable units could reduce the energy usage up to 46.9% and keep the human health intact. This new way of smart air conditioner could accomplish a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF HEATING, VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE ENERGY CONSUMPTION.
For a higher quality and comfortable modern lifestyle, individuals depend on air conditioners (ACs) much more than the past. In both developing and developed countries, ACs expands the inhabitance proportion of building zones. This additionally prompts a fast and rapid development in the energy consumption by Air conditioning systems. Concurring to static information, HVAC very nearly expended half of the energy in buildings and 20% of the total national energy utilization. Therefore, it is essential to diminish the energy consumption of Air Conditioning systems in private residential as well as commercial buildings. The techniques of creating new energy-efficient equipment, applying complex and unpredictable control strategies, using sun’s energy as a new vital energy source, etc., are all being considered for saving energy in ACs. Among them, applying control methodologies may be the more economical and proficient technique. The outcomes demonstrate that the energy consumption of pumps can be brought down by using these control procedures. A feedback controller for ACs is designed and improves the energy efficiency of aeration and cooling systems. Experimental outcomes demonstrate that the technique can come with a better coefficient of performance of the Air Conditioner and a comfortable indoor environment even in very hot and humid uncomfortable weather. For multi-unit Air Conditioners, a fuzzy rational control method is used to control the operational number of compressors and fans to enhance energy proficiency. The past researches of applying control methodologies on ACs are mainly based on the difference of parameters and cause the response. This is one kind of passive responses and may not be suitable for human comfort and health. The developing history of Air Conditioners is connected to the efficiency, technology, human comfort, and energy utilization. Air Conditions’ progress includes window type, split type, fixed frequency, convertible frequency, and the recently presented smart type. In the 1990s, to reduce the noise and satisfy the users, window type air conditioners were modified to the split type by moving the compressor outside the occupancy area. Since 2000, the high oil price and the requirement for energy conservation have forced the control of compressors to be changed and improved from fixed frequency to convertible. The fixed frequency control of compressors adopts full power as the On-Off output, and causes temperature varieties and misuse of energy. However, the compressor output and the flow rate of refrigerant can be adjusted using the modified convertible frequency control by utilizing an electronic expansion valve according to the indoor thermal mass for energy conservation. Since 2010, smart cell phones, tablets, personal computers, and cloud computing and 4th generation (4G) communication in 2014 were generally used and have resulted in an information revolution. By utilizing communication technologies, the adjustment of air conditioners is not only a single feedback of setting information. A smart air conditioning system can be combined with an infrared sensor for human position sensing, meteorological webs for outdoor weather information, wearable devices for human activity and intention awareness. Henceforth, air conditioners are expected to alter the indoor temperature efficiently considering human comfort and energy conservation.
2. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF AIR CONDITIONING CONTROL AND ENRGY USAGE
This study focused on controlling or managing Air conditioning systems smartly by making use of cell phones, wearable gadgets and smart sensors. It’s the most up to date trend in air conditioner development. Before the design is presented, a mathematical model of aeration and cooling control is derived from fundamental theorems. This will help in the clear cut understanding of the concepts. The basic operating principle of the air conditioner (aeration and cooling system) is the vapor cycle understood using thermodynamics. The steps of vapor cycle are:
(1) The saturated refrigerating liquid is compressed to a higher pressure vapor, also known as superheated vapor;
(2) Eliminating heat energy from the system by either circulating water or air and is condensed into saturated liquid;
(3) Undergoing an unexpected decrease in pressure through the throttle and expansion process, and becoming a liquid and vapor refrigerant mixture with lesser temperature and pressure;
(4) Absorbing or taking in the heat of an enclosed space or space by a circulating fan in the evaporator and expands into the saturated vapor;
(5) Vapor is send back to the compressor in order to complete cooling cycle by cycle. The vapor cycle incorporates compression, heat extraction, expansion, and heat absorption.
This process is completed using the compressor, condenser, expansion valve and evaporator. The more explained operating principles of the vapor cycle include the change in temperature, pressure, enthalpy and entropy. These 4 devices were installed in an air conditioner to carry out the vapor cycle and chill down the closed area in case of a traditional window type air conditioner. Almost 90% of the traditional window type air conditioners are replaced by the split type now. The compressor and condenser of the split type air conditioner are integrated in the outdoor unit to avoid the compressor making noise and disturbing the occupants. In the indoor unit the expansion valve and evaporator are included. One of the many advantages of split AC is the fact that it produces less noise, and this feature has made it the main trend of air conditioners for home and business purposes.
3. SMART CONTROLLER DESIGN BASED ON SMART SENSORS
Before the introduction of the smart control, the On-Off and Inverter control are perfectly described in the following two sub-sections. Both of them, compared with smart control, represent the difference causing control. Then the smart sensors, including portable phones, wearable gadget units and other sensors, are introduced. These will be the key components to decide human intentions. Finally, the outline of a smart controller based on smart sensors and gadgets is illustrated to show the intention causing control.
3.1. On-Off Control of the Fixed Frequency Air Conditioner
The meaning of fixed frequency is the compressor of the AC works in the fixed rotation velocity. The association between the rotation speed of motor and electrical frequency can be explained as:
Speed (rpm) = (120*f) (1-d) p
f = the electrical frequency
p = is the magnetic poles of motor
d = is the rotary slip difference (d = 0 under zero loading).
The temperature inside is kept stable by operating the compressor to on and off positions, when the motor works in the fixed rotation speed and the indoor air conditioning load is less. This method of operating the Air Condition is also mentioned as On-Off control.
In the method of On-Off control, the fixed frequency air conditioner turns on the compressor when the return air temperature is higher than the set one, and turns it off when it’s the opposite. By doing this, the refrigerant would flow through the condenser and evaporator for heat exchanging with the indoor and outdoor air to keep the indoor temperature stable.
3.2. Inverter Control of the Convertible Frequency Air Conditioner
The main air conditioning product for energy conservation is the convertible frequency Air conditioner. It may be characterized as the situation where the rotation speed of the motor could be adjusted or changed according to our wish for regulating the refrigerant energy output by changing the input electric power frequency
Comparing the convertible frequency type with the fixed frequency could first rectify the 60 Hz electricity into the direct current type, and then by using pulse width modulation, modulate the frequency of output electricity. As stated by the feedback temperature difference, the AC could provide the air flow of stable temperature to control the temperature of indoor space by adjusting the refrigerator flow.
4. SMART SENSORS
Smart sensors, including smart versatile phones, wearable units and other sensors, are introduced in the market now. They are the key components of smart control for detecting the human’s intention and passing it on to the system. Mobile phones would provide occupants’ information by incorporating to the GPS and personal schedule for collecting the position and intentions of the person. The air conditioner could cool down the indoor temperature fast before the occupants enter.
The wearable gadgets and their provisions are predicted to have a sudden increase in the coming future. Gadgets that are wearable, such as watches or bracelets, may be adopted for detecting the human sleeping state as the feedback signals of the sleeping function. The accelerator could detect the acceleration between 10 and 10?6 g, the velocity between 10 and 1.67 ×10?9 m/s, and the displacement between 10 and 2.78 ×10?13 m. It can collect human motion information and feedback to the smart air conditioner for further control.
4.1. Smart Control Based on Smart Sensors
Counting the examination of the fixed and convertible frequency control schemes, the quantitative investigation of the smart control based on the smart sensors is the fundamental focus in this paper. Smart control, in view of the information collected by the use of mobile phones and wearable gadgets, strengthens the connection with occupants and carries out the intention causing control. It might incorporate the following aspects: (1) Mobile telephones with GPS and individual timetables, for recognizing the tenants’ position and intentions, could anticipate the occupants’ intention of entering the enclosed area. At this minute, the compressor, which is off in the usual situation, could turn on in the full power. Before entering, the circling fan turns on at the highest speed, and the air deflector swings for 10 min to enhance the air circulation. Consequently, smart control may enable the enclosed space could be chilled off quickly after the tenants enters. (2) The arm ornament with the accelerator could detect the development of tenant while sleeping. After the occupant falls into a deep sleep, the air conditioner would increase the inside temperature lightly to avoid energy consumption. The smart air conditioner could adjust the compressor output actively according to the occupants’ active intention (going home) and passive one (falling into a deep sleep) for the goals of human comfort and energy conservation. The smart air conditioner includes the following devices:
(1) Air conditioner with changeable refrigeration power;
(2) Novel sensors capable of collaborating with inhabitants;
(3) Communicating units for cell phone and network.
Figure demonstrates the controlling structure of smart air conditioner, including ventilation system, temperature sensor, IR indicator, mobile phone and wearable gadgets. The control structure of the smart aeration and cooling system in Figure utilizes a multi-sensor framework to achieve smart control. The indoor infrared sensor can distinguish peoples’ position and carry out the air flow direction control. Cell phones with GPS and personal timetable can be utilised to detect the inhabitants’ position and intention. Wearable units can be the bracelet with the accelerator. It understands the movement of occupants while sleeping. After the occupant fallings into a deep sleep, the smart air conditioner would uplift the indoor temperature lightly to avoid energy utilization.
Figure- The control plan of a smart ventilation system with Inverter control: different from the fixed and convertible frequency air conditioner with difference causing control, it’s an intention causing control that adjusts the compressor output effectively based the occupants’ active intention (going home) and passive one (falling in a deep sleep) for the goals of human comfort and energy conservation.
4.2. Types of smart sensors integrated with the buildings automation system
Like other types of shrewd building innovation, smart HVAC uses sensors that incorporate with your building’s automation system. These sensors gather information about the conditions throughout your building. Other specialized HVAC equipment gives the ability to adjust temperature, dampness, and air flow in various zones (based on data from the sensors) to optimize comfort while decreasing energy consumption.
Strategically-placed thermal sensors can recognizes the differences in conditions in each zone of a room or building. For instance, a crowded conference room can get warm in a hurry, while an open office room with high ceilings can get chilly (since warm air rises and people are closer to the floor). A smart HVAC framework utilises that data to adjust to changing conditions throughout the day or week.
As indicated in a current research by Harvard School of Public Health, high CO2 levels in a building can have a direct negative impact on thinking and decision making. CO2 sensors detects the levels of CO2 gas in an area, which can increase to undesirable levels as occupancy increases. When the threshold is reached, a smart HVAC system can increase levels of fresh air supplied to the space. This technology can have a significant impact on workforce wellbeing.
Occupancy sensors are useful for office conditions (like most) that don’t have uniform utilization constantly. The high increasing in moving workers are leaving desks and conference rooms empty as much as 50 to 60 percent of the time. It means the place is getting heated and cooled for people who are not there. Occupancy sensors detect the presence of people (typically by detecting motion) currently using singular spaces within an office. This information can be used to alter the temperatures based on real-time utilization, saving you money on energy consumption.
The present day modern office spaces and buildings are constructed in such a way that it allows more passage of natural light. But the daylight varies from morning until evening, and from one side of the building to another, and this can create problems on the operation of your Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system. As a result, spaces exposed to more sunlight turn up too hot while areas with less sun light can become too cold.
5. EXPECTED GOALS AND RESULTS
The expected goals of smart control for air conditioner include human comfort and energy conservation. They could be evaluated by:
(1) Human comfort represented by temperature response: the time to reach the indoor temperature of the setting value, oscillating amplitude of temperature after the steady state and the level of temperature shift.
(2) Energy conservation calculated by compressor energy: a smart socket is used for measuring compressor output during two experiment cases. For On-Off control of the fixed frequency air conditioner, the results of indoor temperature response and compressor output from the beginning to the steady state of 28 °C are shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1- The results of indoor temperature response and compressor output for the fixed frequency air conditioner with On-Off control.In Figure 1, the solid line is the indoor temperature response, and the dotted line is the compressor output. When reaching the setting value of 28 °C, the compressor will be turned off/on to adjust the refrigerant. This will result in the compressor output ratio oscillating between 0 and 100%, and the indoor temperature also oscillating between ±0.6 °C. It is also noted that the indoor temperature increases from 27.4 °C to 29 °C gradually, due to the error of the temperature sensor feedback being within ±0.2 °C. In Figure 15, the accumulated errors of temperature feedback make the switching timing of the compressor occur later, and the indoor temperature also becomes higher subsequently. Therefore, the On-Off control obviously has problems resulting from feedback errors, especially the accumulated error.
For Inverter control of convertible frequency air conditioner, the results of the indoor temperature response and the compressor output from the beginning to the steady state of 28 °C are shown in Figure-2.
Figure 2- The results of indoor temperature response and compressor output for the convertible frequency air conditioner with Inverter control.
In Figure-2, the solid line is the indoor temperature response, and the dotted line is the compressor output. The compressor output decreases from 100% to a stable value of 12%. The indoor temperature keeps at 28 °C, with the error less than ±0.1 °C. Inverter control presents a more stable response of indoor temperature and compressor output than the On-Off one. However, the control output still depends on the error of temperature feedback. For the Inverter control, the PID algorithm in Equation (17) times the errors with a constant, differentiates the errors by time and accumulates the errors. All the complicated calculations take a longer time for the air conditioner to adjust the refrigerant, and the indoor temperature may reach the set value later, after 8 min.
From the theoretical analysis and experimental results, the design of a smart air conditioner with mobile phones and wearable devices could be carried out the intention causing control as the a significant improvement of air conditioner technology. There are some conclusions and recommendations for the smart air conditioners as follows:
(1) The total compressor output of a smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than the fixed frequency one. Indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors less than 0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved in 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter.
(2) The intention causing control of smart air conditioner could be practiced by combing with the GPS, personal schedule and setting information of the mobile phone for the optimized setting of compressor output.
(3) The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and action during sleep for determining the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and maintain the human health. Based on these results, the smart air conditioner with mobile phones and wearable devices could carried out the intention causing control as a significant improvement of air conditioner technology, and be improved for human comfort and energy conservation in the coming future.
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What is Pancreatic CancerOm PatelMr. Madden12/8/17AbstractThe paper will outline the background of cancer and the anatomy of the pancreas, while simultaneously showcasing the vast information on pancreatic cancer with references from esteemed peer edited journals and credible online sources. Pancreatic cancer is a rare cancer that is similar to other cancers following similar trends with the hallmarks of cancer and many other features from oncogenes that allow for the formation of the cancerous cells in the Pancreas. Pancreatic cancer is extensively discussed on methods of diagnosis and treatment for one of the highest mortality rates based on cancer types. The evidence from the paper showcases the pancreatic cancer’s ill effects and various pathways that cause mutations in the DNA in the form of oncogenes, which encode for hallmarks like growth factors, and other aids in ability of the cancerous cells to replicate. The research paper outlines a unique pro of cancer, which is cancer is the catalyst for innovation in the field of aging. Introduction: Cancer is a mutation in the cell’s DNA, which changes the cell dramatically classified in the “Hallmarks of cancer.” The hallmarks are sustaining high levels of proliferation, resisting apoptosis, turning off growth suppressors, enabling theoretical immortality, angiogenesis, and metastasis. These hallmarks are the basic and crucial components of cancerous cells (Hanahan & Weinberg, 2011). The mutations are from various areas of the cell’s DNA and can be caused by many stimuli, because there is no one cause for cancer. Alcohol, smoking, and obesity are the three most speculated causes for disease, because of the increase of mutations that these risky situations have on the body. Cancer can occur in any location of the body, because any cell has the potential of mutating, which makes Cancer a deadly disease for humanity. Cancer is a household term, because of the deadly implications on the general population it has incurred, because is the leading cause of death with 8.2 million cancer related deaths in 2012. 14.1 million new cancer cases were seen in the year of 2012 with an expected growth rate of 70 percent of cancer cases, because of the population growing older. The age of the potential patient, make the cells susceptible to mutations that are carcinogenesis, because of the less accurate system in the cell over years of depreciation of cellular processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and translation that can cause mutations in the cell, because of the complexity of the processes. Cancer has a high mortality rate, but the cancer with the highest mortality rate is Pancreatic Cancer, which has the fourth highest death toll with cancer related deaths, but is the tenth most common cancer. Pancreatic Cancer is one of the most deadly, because of the nonexistent symptoms in the early stages of Pancreatic Cancer allowing the cancer to go undetected unlike other cancer types. Pancreatic Cancer is normally noticed in third or fourth stage of cancer, which causes for the decreased treatment options. Pancreatic Cancer is the key focus of this article, because of the interestingly unknown causes and no known solution implemented to prevent the spread of this disease. The article focuses on the functions and anatomy of the Pancreas and the formation, diagnosis, and treatment plan for Pancreatic Cancer (Sawant & Shegokar, 2014).PancreasPancreas is an important organ of the body, because of the ability to aid in digestion, make of insulin, and create hormones. Pancreas in the body is above the intestine and below the liver, but adjacent to the gall bladder and lymph nodes. The shape of the Pancreas is similar to a fish, because the Pancreas has three distinct features the head, body, and tail. The head is located snugly near the duodenum, which connects to the common bile duct allowing for accessible transport of the hormones and digestive enzymes. The body becomes thinner and has vast network ducts running throughout to allow for the accessibility. The tail is the thinnest portion of the pancreas and is the tip of the pancreas, which is slightly pointed at the end. Pancreas has lobules in the outer membrane of the organ, which are shaped as semicircular. Body Pancreas is separated into two major parts the endocrine and exocrine. The endocrine secretes the hormones and transports in the body with the use of the pancreatic duct. The endocrine comprises of the islets of Langerhans, which are the location for the secretion of the hormones. The insulin is used to regulate the sugar levels in the body, but when insulin does not equate to the levels of sugar in the body, the patient is referred to as diabetic. A lesser-known mediator of sugar levels in the pancreas is the hormone glucagon (Pancreas Center, 2017). The maintenance of sugar levels are key to the body, because can result in the extensive medical issues, such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, nerve damage, leg and foot amputations, and death. The Pancreas is the bedrock for fundamental processes of life, because of the endocrine secretion of hormones that regulate the sugar levels. (Asif, 2014) Exocrine is used for creating digestive enzymes, which can go into the duodenum and aid in the digestion of food before entering the intestine. The enzymes created vary to digest the various types of food from proteins to fats. The two enzymes in the Pancreas that aid in the digestion of proteins are trypsin and chymotrypsin. Amylase aids in the digestion of carbohydrates, while lipase aids in the digestion of fats. Pancreas is a key organ in the body, because aids in digestion and helps in the formation of hormones to regulate sugar levels (Pancreas Center, 2017). The Pancreas can become cancerous, which alters the useful nature of the pancreas to a deadly cancer. Pancreatic CancerThe Cancer type is unique, because of no display of symptoms until later stages, which gives medical staff limited options. The Pancreatic Cancer has an estimated 38,460 out of 45,220 people expected to die in the year of 2013, but the research and development is stagnant for Pancreatic Cancer, because the death toll is expected to increase 70 percent each year (Sawant & Shegokar, 2014). The most common form of Pancreatic Cancer is Ductal adenocarcinoma, because 95% of cases reported have been Ductal adenocarcinoma. The Pancreatic Cancer is caused by many bad habits such as alcohol consumption and smoking of cigarettes, but can also be genetically related as recent studies have shown (Ziyad & Iruela-Arispe, 2011). Pancreatic Cancer forms primarily from mutations in the genes of normal cells known as proto-oncogenes most common form of mutation is point mutation to form the oncogenic genes. These genes are the able to increase the cellular activities, which give more potential for the cell to create more mutations for example deletion of the tumor suppressor. Oncogenes also code for the signal transducers and cellular death inhibitors. The Pancreatic Cancer does not have a sole cause, but is normally formed from the mutations in the proto-oncogenes forming oncogenes. Pancreatic cancer uses signal pathways with the K-Ras mutations, which force the cell to have the GTP actively bounded, resulting in an accelerated rate of cellular replication. K-Ras is an integral part of Pancreatic Cancer, because regulates most processes of the cell for a carcinogenic cell: inhibition of apoptosis, cell cycle and transcription, calcium signaling, and proliferation. The K-Ras mutation causes for a trickle down effect to the pathways changing the processes to allow for carcinogenesis. The signal pathways that enable this to happen are HGF, MAPK, PTEN, and STAT. C-MET is the oncogene that encodes for HGF, which is a growth factor for the cell, which is important in growth initial growth of the cancerous cells. Ras encodes for MAPK, which is an important regulator of DNA transcription and mRNA translations. AKT1 is an oncogene that allows the cell to avoid apoptosis by blocking it and at the same time promotes in angiogenesis. JAK is crucial to DNA regulation, because activate DNA transcription and prevents apoptosis through complex processes. The gene for Cell control, CDKN2A has a profound impact in the ability to be Cancerous, because of the inhibitors that are a result of the alternating splicing sites, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and p53-activator. Both are crucial in the tumors growth the more common is lost through mutation (Ziyad & Iruela-Arispe, 2011). The Pancreatic Cancerous cells can block density inhibitors and other factors that impede on growth factors in the cell, which cause for cancerous cells to have a difficulty acquiring the required nutrients, when rapidly cells surround the cell, because of the blocking of density inhibitors. The method used by cancerous cells to resolve the issue of necessary materials for cell life is known as Angiogenesis, which allow the cancer cells to divert the bloodstream towards the cancer cells. Angiogenesis in detail uses Matrix metalloproteinases to generate the migration and creation of angiogenesis with many other different factors for morphing the bloodstream to efficiently provide for the tumor, which is similar to the organs ability to acquire nutrients from the bloodstream. Pancreatic Cells are extremely deadly, because of the late diagnosis, but similar to other cancers the unregulated growth of the cells causes for the cell to impede the tasks of the surrounding cells. The cell impedes the surrounding cells’ ability to export and import nutrient and other required materials for cellular functions like exporting the waste product of carbon dioxide, and importing nutrients like glucose from the bloodstream. The cancerous cell starts at stage one, which is the local area. Next, the tumor will grow to a regional area of the Pancreas for a pancreatic tumor, which will harm the pancreas is crucial process as detailed in an above paragraph. The third stage is extremely dangerous; because this is the stage, that metastasis occurs. Metastasis is the spreading of cancerous cells outside of the original region for example the Pancreatic Cancer could go to the liver, which would vastly increase the area of exposure. The final and fourth stage is when the Cancer has made progress to impede in the basic processes of the patient’s life. The Fourth stage essentially prevents the organs to process normally, and prevent the normal life sustaining processes.Pancreatic Cancer is diagnosed with symptoms in the patient, but in the Pancreatic Cancer, the symptoms are limited and are showcased in the last two stages. Early diagnosis is an attempt to aid in the ability to combat the mortality rate in Pancreatic Cancer, by marking the oncogenes in the Pancreas and checking for family history of Cancer. The two possible ways to diagnosis Pancreatic Cancer are just two of the many variations in testing to be used in the real world. Treatment for Pancreatic Cancer is still very basic and destructive. The treatments available are Surgery, Radiation therapy, and Chemotherapy, which are the three major formats used on Pancreatic Cancer patients. The first approach is always the Surgery, because of the least harmful to the body of the patient, but is only able to be done in first and two stages. The limitations on surgery are because of metastasis spreading the cancer out that the surgery would not prevent the Cancer, and cause the patient more harm than necessary. The prominent surgery done is whipple surgery when applicable to the scenario of the patient. The next possible method is Radiation therapy, which is extremely harmful to the body, but is as harmful to the cancer cells. Radiation therapy is for primarily second stage and for third stage of Cancer. The last prominent method is Chemotherapy, but this method is the most dangerous. Chemotherapy is a dangerous method, because of the usage of harmful chemicals that destroy cells at alarming rate, but also eliminate the cancerous cells. The Chemotherapy has a low probability of working, because of metastasis already occurring in the cell and affecting various different sites in the body. Chemotherapy is administered by injection or pills which allow for some targeting of the cancer site. The future for treatments is the use of specialization of the patient’s genetic DNA in the making of the treatment plan. (7)Application of Cancer to further medical studies are phenomenal, because the cell in theory is immortal with sufficient resources. The cell allows for proof of the possibility that humans have the potential to become immortal similar to the cancerous cells. The prime example of Cancer’s aid in the discovering a pathway to immortality is the knowledge that scientist have learned on Telomeres. Telomeres are the ends of the cell that act as caps for protection of the DNA, which causes cell death if the telomere caps are gone to prevent harmful mutations in the body. The ability that telomeres play a crucial role in Cancer prompted extensive research into telomeres and telomerase. This spur of knowledge led to strides in the medical knowledge on immortality, because of the ability to regrow the telomeres with telomerase, which can in the near future increase the lifespan of average citizens. The average person has a set amount of telomere at the ends of the DNA, but each time the DNA is replicated the telomeres erode at a microscopic level, but over trillions of replications, the telomeres show depreciation of the length. The ability that cancerous cells have is to use telomerase in order to replace these aging cells, which helps keep the cells alive and without any harmful mutations. The same process is attempted to be applied on humans’ cells without applying cancerous cells that impede on the body’s processes.Conclusion:Cancer is a complex evolution from a single mutation to metastases. Pancreatic Cancer has the highest mortality rates, and we have miniscule knowledge on this specific cancer. The knowledge available shows that the Pancreatic cancer occurs from specific mutations pertaining to the cell’s regulation genes, which are also termed oncogenes. Cancer is depicted as a deadly disease, because of the high mortality rates of patients, but the worst mortality rate cancer is Pancreatic, which is because of the low detection after oncogenes have changed the proteins in the cells to allow for blocking of apoptosis and the ability of angiogenesis. Pancreatic Cancer has a vastly less information on the cancer, because of its rarity, which helps it be the deadliest cancer. Scientists are making great strides in understanding the biological functions of pancreatic cancer for applying this knowledge to an effective treatment an example can be gene therapy and many more variations for treating cancer. The detection of cancer is also making strides by scientists and has allowed for other cancers to quickly detect and treat efficiently. Cancer is depicted as a sinister force, but can also be seen in the unique light of hope. Cancerous cells have the special ability to become immortal in theory and with this discovery the question that is being pursued is how to apply cancerous cell’s unique ability to humans for them to live longer and in the distant future become immortal. The world has significantly improved the progress on cancer research, but needs to expand on the limited understanding to apply to Pancreatic Cancer. References:Abramson, M. A., Jazag, A., Zee, J. A., & Whang, E. E. (2007). The Molecular Biology of Pancreatic Cancer. Retrieved December 10, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2666839/ Asif, M. (2014). The prevention and control the type-2 diabetes by changing lifestyle and dietary pattern. Retrieved December 10, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3977406/Hanahan, D., & Weinberg, R. A. (2011, March 04). Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Retrieved December 18, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21376230/ Kim, V. M., & Ahuja, N. (2015, August). Early detection of pancreatic cancer. Retrieved December 10, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4560741/Makohon-Moore, A., & Iacobuzio-Donahue, C. A. (2016, July 22). Pancreatic cancer biology and genetics from an evolutionary perspective. Retrieved December 10, 2017, from https://www.nature.com/articles/nrc.2016.66 Sawant, S., & Shegokar, R. (2014). Cancer research and therapy: Where are we today?. International Journal Of Cancer Therapy And Oncology, 2(4). doi:10.14319/ijcto.0204.8The Pancreas Center. (n.d.). Retrieved December 10, 2017, from http://columbiasurgery.org/pancreas/pancreas-and-its-functions Villarroel, M. C., Rajeshkumar, N., Garrido-Laguna, I., Jesus-Acosta, A. D., Jones, S., Maitra, A., . . . Hidalgo, M. (2011, January 01). Personalizing Cancer Treatment in the Age of Global Genomic Analyses: PALB2 Gene Mutations and the Response to DNA Damaging Agents in Pancreatic Cancer. Retrieved December 10, 2017, from http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/10/1/3.short Whipple’s procedure: Yesterday and today. (n.d.). Retrieved December 10, 2017, from http://www.ijhpd.com/archive/2016-archive/100045IJHPDBBG2016-gupta/100045IJHPDBBG2016-gupta-full-text.php Zavoral, M., Minarikova, P., Zavada, F., Salek, C., & Minarik, M. (2011, June 28). Molecular biology of pancreatic cancer. Retrieved December 10, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3129504/#__sec14title Ziyad, S., & Iruela-Arispe, M. L. (2011, December). Molecular Mechanisms of Tumor Angiogenesis. Retrieved December 10, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3411131/
Why do we procrastinate procrastination is postponing or delaying important work and do less important and insignificant work first. For example instead of important work we are doing like spending time on social media watch tv eating when you are not even hungry you tubing and other things that are not necessary. It means we all procrastinate. We convince our self that after 2 minutes you will do your work and it get postpone and postpone and you get lot other work with this undine work. The reasons for procrastination 1- stress and anxiety- there are some people you can work under work stress but there are some another type of people in stress and anxiety cannot concentrate on work. As a result they begin to do anything but work to distract themselves. 2- low self-esteem- the most common reason for procrastination is considered to be low self-esteem. Fear of not coping with the task a person falls into the state of procrastination postponing the frightening work as long as possible. as a result internal fears cause a lack of result and failure of the work. 3- hedonism- hedonism is the desire for momentary pleasures. hedonistic procrastinator pushes away from negative feelings and moves towards the things that give them pleasure like watching football social networks others. 4- lack of motivation- one of the major factors is lack of motivation. The monotonous and long-term work makes it depressing. The work which will give you results late you postpone it or you dont feel like doing it rather than you work that give you pleasure or immediate results. 5- excess of works- when you have lots of work and you cant decide what to do first makes you procrastinator. Under these circumstances you try to start one thing and then other thing and most of the things are undone. 6- perfectionism- procrastinator tries to do everything in the perfect way. He thinks that how much time it will take it should be perfect. 7- comparison- sometimes we think that my colleague cannot do that how can i do it. It makes you delay or avoid the tasks. 8- overestimation of time- you think that it is a 2-minute work i can do it anytime or i can do it after watching the show and you postpone it. 9- in search of inspiration- you are in search of inspiration which will allow you to quickly and effortlessly perform a task. you are in search of a good mood or a good time. and you waste the whole time and now you have to take out time from your other works to finish this work. 10- discomfort- sometimes you are uncomfortable psychologically or physically working at a place. To avoid discomfort you try to postpone your work.
Oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFD) is a form of ectodermal dysplasia, which is affecting the development of the skin, nails, hair, eyes, face, fingers, toes and oral cavity. Central nervous system, cardiovascular, renal, and cutaneous abnormalities have been linked to this disorder.1,2 In addition, depressed mental capacity, speech, learning disabilities, and seizures have been reported that directly correlate with the degree of central nervous system involvement.1,2. Some cases reported malformation of the stapes leading to conduction deafness. Which may also, play a role in developmental and intellectual deficiencies. 3
Thirteen different subtypes of OFD 4-5 are reported in the literature. OFD type1 has the highest incidence when compared with the other subtypes, the incidence of this condition ranges between 1/50,000-250,000 live births 6-10. And it affects all races and ethnicities in equal numbers. 1, 4, 10 according to the literature, approximately 75% of cases with OFD 1 are sporadic (16) and 25% are hereditary and it is transmitted as an X-linked dominant condition, with prenatal mortality in homozygous males. 7Conversely, males have been reported in the literature with this disorder with the XXY genome. 4, 12, 13
As the naming indicates it is characterized by affecting the face, oral cavity, and the digits. The face of an affected individuals presents with asymmetry, frontal bossing, hypertelorism, a wide nose with a broad and flat nasal bridge and different size nostrils, hypoplasia of the malar bones, cleft or pseudo-cleft lip, and vanishing milia on the face and ears with a low-set ears, and dry brittle hair with zones of alopecia.
Abnormalities of the oral cavity that occur in many types of the oral-facial-digital syndrome include cleft or highly arched palates, cleft or an unusual lobed shape tongue, growth of noncancerous tumors on the tongue that represent hamartoma. Almost all people with the oral-facial-digital syndrome have hyperplastic frenula that abnormally attach the lip to the gums, in addition to alveolar ridge notching and thickening. Furthermore, teeth present a wide range of variations, such as; supernumerary teeth, missing teeth, impaction weather with or without retained deciduous teeth and enamel dysplasia.
Gnathical variations which may present in these patients are anterior open bite, and maxillary or mandibular micrognathia. 4. Digital malformations affect hands more frequently than feet and include syndactyly (fusion of digits), brachydactyly (shortened digits), clinodactyly (curved digits), and polydactyly (extra digits). ? +17f
Although women have gained increasing power in the workplace thanks to several political movements, gender discrimination still remains an issue in numerous organizations. No matter what choices women make or what skills they have, women still get paid less and are promoted less frequently than men. In addition, it is reported that women are less likely than men to hold senior or executive positions (The Balance, 2017). This paper is going to discuss about a provocative statement: “Actually women are too weak for management” in terms of gender issues within the organization. The body of this paper contains three parts. The first part points out the current issue about gender discrimination in the workplace and its consequences. The following part discusses about two major reasons why gender discrimination exists in organizations, while the last part provides recommendations for this issue.
Gender discrimination in organizations
According to Foley et. al, (2002), gender discrimination is an important matter in organizations. Women usually report in survey that they have experienced gender discrimination at work(Walker and Smith, 2002). In terms of entrepreneurship, it is harder for women than men to begin a business due to their lacks of credit and opportunities (Cooke and Xiao, 2014). Regarding business work environment, women are still more likely than men to get to low-paid jobs, and have less fundamental rights, social security or their own voice. The truth is that for a similar position and same measure of commitment, women don’t generally get an equivalent shake in getting paid and promoted (Stamarski and Son Hing, 2015). According to the US Census Bureau, as cited by The Balance (2017), women in general earned 80% of what men earned for working the same number of hours. Women also must work additionally 44 days to earn the same annual wage as their male counterpart (The Balance, 2017). In addition, it is as well reported that women needs to work for longer time to get promoted. Qualified women may not get promoted because of getting pregnant or going to get pregnant (The Balance, 2017).
Besides, the two most popular invisible barriers that women cannot break in the workplace are sticky floor and glass ceiling. Sticky floor is a term that describe a type of discrimination that keeps women at the lowest level of job scale, for example, waitresses, secretaries, nurses, etc (Abidin, Noor and Ngah, 2016). Meanwhile, glass ceiling is an invisible barrier that block women from advancing to the top level (Purcell, MacArthur and Samblanet, 2010). In other words, it represents the struggles women have to face when achieving senior and executive positions. The statement “Actually women are too weak for management” represents the glass ceiling discrimination. One reason for ladies frustrated upward development is the predominance of excessively numerous male managers at the top acting as a barrier for the women achieving the top. In USA, women constituted around 46% of the aggregate workforce, however their inhabitancies at the top level was just 2% (Michael, 2007). Even though women who are facing glass ceiling are in better positions than women who are facing sticky floor, they are in a same situation that they cannot get promoted. In addition to glass ceiling is the term “glass escalator”. This term describe how fast men are going up to the top level in occupations that were dominated by women in the past. In other words, it is more obvious to imagine that while men are riding escalator, women are walking on stair to achieve the top level positions.
Because of gender discrimination, women in general have, lower socio-economic status than men do (Stamarski and Son Hing, 2015). It is obvious that the gender disparity has hurtful impacts on the economy and advancement. According to Kim (2015), gender discrimination affects negatively on job satisfaction and work engagement, causing decreasing productivity. According to Rajalakshmi and Selvam (2017) if women are empowered, all of society will profit, and be stronger. It is believed that woman empowering in business can emphatically ascribe to financial development and reduce poverty (Zarar, Moula Bukhsh and Khaskheli, 2017). In addition, given the issues of ageing population and shrinking labour force, a larger proportion of women should be engaged in economic activities. Therefore, it is necessary to look all the more particularly at the hindrances which keep women from playing a more dynamic part in business work environments.
Reasons for gender discrimination
Keeping the setting to business work environment, this paper considers two major reasons prompting sex disparity. The first reason is the gender stereotypes, or the out dated customary culture and beliefs that men are superior to women. Society, environment, and parents’ attitude towards their children are the sources of gender discrimination (Borup, 2005). In a family, girls are usually considered weak, vulnerable, and consequently followers, while boys are, for the most part, credited to be powerful, aggressive, and the pioneers. Because of this attitude of parents, girls grow up with a thought that they are less important than boys. Besides, at school, male students are encouraged more to raise questions, and to participate in various kinds of sport.
In the society, women’s income is not usually considered as the main financial source for a family. While men usually participate in economic activities, women usually stay at home to take care of the family and cook. At the workplace, women are considered to be nostalgic, accommodating, superstitious, incongruent with high pressure and high requesting occupations (Kaushik, Sharma and Kumar Kaushik, 2014). Women are also believed to be emotionally weak and can’t be extreme disciplinarian (Kaushik, Sharma and Kumar Kaushik, 2014). Therefore, most of the positions at the top level of management are held by men. This can help explain the existence of glass ceiling in organizations. Indeed, a family photograph on a man’ working desk makes him a gentle man while for woman it is perceived that she focuses on her home, not her profession (Michael, 2007). As a result, because of the way society, environment and parents see and treat women, women eventually find themselves subordinate to men, accept it as a rule, and pass that perception on to their offspring.
The second reason of gender discrimination relates to women’s capacity and efficiency. Since women are vital part of the family, most of them don’t go to work because of family burden. As a matter of fact, a significant number of women have left the work due to getting marriage, pregnancy, and child care. YeomJi-hye, educator of social welfare at Jungwon University, demonstrated Korean ladies business rate moves along a M curve as they quit working in their 30s to watch over youngsters and come back to work in their 40s (Herald, 2017). In any case, ordinarily a lady’s profession tops in her 30s in light of the fact that once she stops, and wishes to come back to work later, she frequently winds up in low paid, brief, and part-time employment (Herald, 2017) . In addition, because of the family responsibilities, and a need for work-life balance, women are less likely than men to work long hours, to travel abroad, and to devote their time entirely to the company.
Given that women are less likely than men to hold senior or executive positions because of their choices, not because of discrimination, there has been an ongoing public debate that glass ceiling is only a myth, not a reality. Stamarski and Son Hing (2015) believed that women would rather not reach the top positions than scarify their family responsibilities. Furthermore, studies have found that one possible reason women are not accomplishing senior or executives positions is because of the fields they worked in (Draulans, 2003). The general population elevated to the top levels manage some part of regulating benefits and misfortunes for the organization or bring income into the association. Top positions normally originates from management in the zones of finance, production, or sales. Supervisors in those key zones achieve the senior or executive positions, whereas women are usually engaged in other zones, for example, HR and administration, and therefore, do not usually hold the highest positions inside an organization.
From the point of view of companies, they need to reduce their employment turnover rates and expenses of maternity leave, childcare, and retirement schemes. Therefore, organizations have a tendency not to contract a large number of women, regardless of how qualified they are. Organizations may contend that men are typically more experienced and willing to work extra hours, devote more to their employments than ladies. Despite what might be expected, women will probably leave the workforce in the wake of getting marriage, which causes higher employment turnover rates and training costs (Foley et. al, 2002). Considering all of these costs, organizations would prefer not to give a lot of training or advancement to women. Such discrimination against women can attribute to Human Resource policies. For example, women who have young children may experience discrimination when interviewing for job when they are asked about family responsibilities. As a result, a qualified women candidate may fail the interview if the interviewer feels that she has a lot of family responsibilities to fulfil, such as taking care of young children. For the same token, managers may pass women over for promotion because of their beliefs in women’s role and ability.
Recently, there have been many legal measures and affirmative actions to protect women, and encourage women to participate in economic activities. However, researches have shown that, legal measures can help women achieve the middle management positions, with limited authority and low salary, yet cannot help women to achieve the top level positions (Adams and Funk, 2009). In other words, even though these measures and actions increase the inflow of women into companies, they do not ensure that those women will achieve the senior or executives positions.
In terms of the first reason, it is because of the gender stereotypes that are passed on from parents, and prior generations. The real method to reduce gender stereotypes is through education. Parents and teachers play the most important role in setting up the identity of a child. Youngsters learn gender at an early age from their family. Girls figure out how to play with dolls, while boys play with cars. Instead of discouraging child from a toy that is designed for the other sexual orientation, parents should urge a kid to be more dynamic and to attempt everything that he or she may like. In other words, when a girl is born, her parents should treat her equally to their other sons, and make her think that she is as good as other boys. The education environment is also essential in shaping a child’s identity. Without acknowledging it, numerous instructors support male understudies. This may come through asking boys more troublesome inquiries or intruding on girls while they are speaking. Educators ought to find out about sexual orientation discrimination, and what they can do to stop it. In other words, teachers become one of the key factor in making the change for the better of the society; therefor need to demonstrate their fairness to all of students, in spite of their gender.
In terms of the second reason, companies usually do not want to hire women because they are afraid of high employment turnover rate, expenses for maternity leave, on-site childcare, and legal measures or affirmative acts such as the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA), Affordable Care Act (ACA), Equal Pay Act(EPA), Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) (Wilkie, 2015). PDA prohibits employers from discriminating against women due to their pregnancy, medical leave, or childcare. ACA requires employers to allow women to have reasonable breaks up to one year after their child birth. EPA prohibits employers from pay discriminating against women. Meanwhile, EEOC prohibits employers from discriminating against women due to their family responsibilities for young children or elderly parents.
According to these policies, a business ought to abstain from settling on work choices construct exclusively with respect to sexual orientation and also apply all working environment arrangements in an unbiased way. This implies businesses should utilize an indistinguishable criteria to assess employees and give men and women the same opportunity in recruitment and advancement. Managers ought to build up a zero resistance strategy for sexual orientation separation and try to give training to all levels of position. Further, businesses ought to abstain from participating in unlawful sex stereotyping and in addition treating men and ladies contrastingly in view of pregnancy, medicinal leave or providing care obligations. In addition, organizations need to comprehend that the disallowance against sex separation applies to women.
However, as mentioned earlier, these acts can just only stimulate the inflow of women workforce into organizations, but cannot ensure that women will hold top level position. The key solution for this issue lies in the culture, value of organization and HR policies. In order to encourage the participation of women in top level positions, companies should have HR policies that give equal opportunity of training and promotion to both men and women.
The statement that “Women are too weak for management” addresses the issue of glass ceiling in organizations. There has been an on-going public debate that whether glass ceiling is a myth or a reality. Arguments supporting that glass ceiling is a myth include claims that women make their own choice to leave job, that women do not usually work in the field of finance, production, or sales, and that women do not have sufficient characteristics to lead (Draulans, 2003). Arguments supporting that glass ceiling is a reality includes various examples of gender stereotypes in the workplace, for example, women are considered to be nostalgic, accommodating, superstitious, incongruent with high pressure and high requesting occupations (Kaushik, Sharma and Kumar Kaushik, 2014).
In order to find appropriate solutions for this issue, this paper looks at the two factors for gender discrimination at work. For the first factor, parents, and teachers play an essential role in shaping a child’ identity, and their duty is to create a better environment for the children in general. In particular, girls should not be discouraged from playing with trucks, and boys should not be discouraged from playing with dolls. Parents should urge their children to attempt for everything their children enjoy doing and should provide them the same opportunity regardless of their gender. For the second reason, several acts have been enacted to protect women rights at work, such as the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA), Affordable Care Act (ACA), Equal Pay Act(EPA), Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) (Wilkie, 2015). Nevertheless, company’s HR policies are the key solution to this issue. Companies should have appropriate HR policies that help build diversity in the organization, provide equal promoting opportunities to both men and women, as well as ensure that there is no gender inequality in the organization.
The relatively poor health and safety record of the
construction industry although over the last couple of years has vastly improved,
there is still a need for greater awareness of the relevance of health and
safety regulations and legislations especially in relation to the handling,
storage and use of materials.
This report will
attempt to discuss the construction of foundations of commercial highlighting
the various materials used in the process, as well as discussing the pieces of
legislation pertaining to the safe use of these materials.
When discussing health and safety legislation in
construction, it would be impossible to fail to discuss the Health and Safety
at Work Act (HASAWA) of 1974. It is the main piece of legislation which covers occupational
health and safety in the United Kingdom. It is an act of parliament and as such
is referred to as a primary legislation. The act and its Regulations are
enforced by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) which itself was established
as a result of the HASAWA. The HASAWA imposes duties on employers to safeguard
the health and safety of their employees. In addition to this, employees must
also protect the health safety and welfare at work of people on their premises
‘so far as is reasonably practicable’. The HASAWA also allows the government to
pass regulations, guidance and Approved codes of practice (ACOP’s) for
employers. A sustaining principle of the act was the shift from a prescriptive
approach to health and safety to a system of risk management. Employers were
required to identify hazards and assess the likely impacts with a view to
minimising the associated risks.
Aside the HASAWA, there’s also the Construction (Design and
Management) Regulations 2015 (CDM 2015), one of the most important regulations
in the construction industry alongside the HASAWA 1974. Its purpose is to
ensure that health and safety is considered during all stages of a project from
design to construction to maintenance. The current version of the report came
into effect in 2015 and describes:
· The law
which affects the construction process on all levels across the entire industry
· what each
duty holder should do to conform with the law and ensure projects are carried
out in a way that secures health and safety
Face features were the
key of face recognition systems that was
used from the beginning and still plays a major role in the today’s developed
approaches to imitate the capacity of face recognition.
There were efforts marqeus PAPER20 suggested the geometric measurement of eyes (distance from the two eyes and the
ratio between width and length) and disposing of certain face feature that were
used in the past to improve the performance marqeus PAPER24. Other important
features include skin color marqeus PAPER 99, 33 which influence in a high
scale the face detection. Localization of
specific features such as the mouth and eyes is used in normalization
before extracting the features. It is critical to determine what facial
features should be present to an accurate face recognition and what features
are irrelevant causing just added noise.
initiation of mathematical tools such as
eigenfaces generated a new method to facial recognition marqeus PAPER101, 56.
Which made feasible the computation between the similarities of the features
from human faces.
3.0 Face Detection
considering the face recognition, it is required to go through some
of face detection is to locate and detect if the human faces come into sight in
a given frame or not and determine the position of the human face in the image.
The outcome of it are patches that hold each single face in the input image, in
order to compensate the orientations and scales of these patches is carried out
a face alignment.
With the technology
evolving continuously some applications do not necessarily need the phase of face
detection. In addition most of data bases usually contain images that are
normalized before. With other words the
frames are already standardized so the detecting phase can be skipped.
However this rule doesn’t
apply to every case, for example in case there is the implementation of a face
tracking system and recognition system
in a video surveillance then it is
mandatory to have face detection phase. Presumably face detection is more or
less a division of recognition algorithms. From the other hand there are a few problems
to be taken into consideration. marqeus PAPER 117. 125 Because
the images might have been capture in environments that are not controlled for
example a surveillance video occurring the following challenges:
Large pose variations due to the moving human or a bad angle of
camera. With that being said the performance of the face detection drops to an
undesirably great degree.
Making it hard to extract the features due to the
existence of different components such as glasses, beard or even the subject itself
can be covered by other faces. .
Facial gestures are also a major challenge due to
the subject’s face expression may vary drastically making it tough to detect
If the image doesn’t have the appropriate settings
when capturing the image such as a good exposure, shutter speed and the
appropriate aperture for the specific ambient it might end up having a blurry image, too dark or washed out image,
making it tough to distinguish the face.
3.1 Structure of Face Detection
The challenges mentioned
above are not the only one in the phase of Face Detection, there are plenty of
sub-challenges. Some approaches detect and in the meantime locate the faces and
then proceed with the next phase which is the face tracking -see Figure 1.0. While
other approaches initially execute a detection loop and if the face is detected
it tries to locate the face we are interested in afterwards execute face
tracking -see Figure 1.0. A face location
is an easier way to face detection and it is responsible to find the
location of a particular face in an image showing only one face.
Figure 1.0 : Two different Face Detection Processes.
Such approaches generally
share the same processes. Initially
there is reduction of the images so there is a more efficient
performance by reducing the response time.
In addition there are some
pre-processing steps that are done in most algorithms in order to adapt the
input frames to fulfill some precondition to a specific algorithm. Depending on
the algorithm the frames might be examined as they are without any further
modification while other are extracting different measurements of the face.
Proceeding with the next step where there the extraction of facial feature take
place and the measurements are weighted, compared and assessed to determine
whether there is a face in the frame or not, and if yes, where it is located.
Eventually other approaches have a learning procedure where they adjust the new
frames to their existing models. With
that being said face detection can be seen in two sub-problems determining
whether there is a face in the frame or not. Thus extending it further to that
point where it resembles a simplified face recognition algorithm. Whereas face detection algorithms have the same
techniques as face recognition.
3.2 Face Detection Approaches
Classifying face detection approaches is not so easy but
rather difficult to achieve. As there isn’t a specific criteria when it comes
to grouping them due to the fact that they overlap and are combined with each
other at some extent. Based on two taxonomy criteria that are presented below,
one of them perform better in clear-cut scenarios. Depending on the scenario
different algorithms might be used. While the other criteria make a division of
the detection approaches into four groups.
criterion “Scenario dependent”
Controlled environment. The frames are
undemanding due to the controlled light, face towards the camera and the
techniques for face detection are simple
.Colored frames. Skin
color is a key factor as it used to find the human faces among other objects in
the frame. This technique is not that robust because if the light conditions
tend to change then there might be over exposure or a lot of noise in dark
situations. Even though the human skin
has the tendency to change drastically, several studies determine this change
is due to the different intensities with that being said chrominance is quite a
good feature to be considered in a particular scenario where the light variance
is kept steady to some point. marqeus PAPER 117. Building an effective
robust face detection approach based on skin color has a lot of
challenges to deal with as it is not easy to set up a solid human skin color.
Nevertheless there are approaches that established face detection algorithms on
this domain marqeus PAPER 99.
Motioned frames. It is usually present
in video where the subjects are in motion. The algorithm is seeking and trying
to localize the face where the motion is present. A lot of researches putting
effort to achieve best detecting results and highest performance at the same
time. Another significant algorithm based on motion detection is eye blink
detection that has gained a lot of attention in the motion detection field and
beyond that marqeus PAPER 30, 53.
criterion “Division of the detection approaches into four groups”
Classification of these approaches was made possible by Yan, Kriegman and Ahuja
marqeus PAPER 117. Where the approaches are sub-divided into four groups. Taking
into consideration that these approaches might overlap or be mixed with one
another with other words an approach could belong to more than one group.
classification is presented below:
Comprehensive-based approaches. Controlled-based
approaches that convert the
comprehension of human faces. .
Constant face features approaches. The
algorithms that are seeking constant face features discarding the pose
Modeled combining approaches. The Algorithms
are measuring the input features of the frames from the sensor with the one
that are stored on the database to see if the faces are matched or not.
approaches. The model is learnt from a set of training images relying on
These four categories are
examined in further details below:
These are controlled-based
approaches. Trying to capture our Comprehension
of human faces and interpret them into simple rules. For example, a human face generally
has two eyes that are symmetric, where the part of the eyes is usually darker
than the rest of the face. With that being said, some facial features can
considered the distance from one eye to he other. Another facial feature is the
color intensity difference in the eye area in contrast with the cheeks area. A
major issue that occurs with these methods is finding the appropriate number of
rules in order to keep the right balance between the false positives and false
negatives. In the case where the rules are too general then could be many false
positives. Inversely if the rules are too detailed there is a higher chance of
A solution to
overcome such problems is to construct a hierarchical comprehensive-based approach.
Although, this method shows quite limitations in finding many faces in complicated
frames when it operates alone.
There are a
lot of researches who showed large interest and tried to find some constant
face features for face detection. The concept is to overwhelm the boundaries of
our intuitive comprehension of faces. In the early stage of this algorithm Han,
Liao, Yu and Chen gave their contribution in 1997 marqeus
was divided in several sub-steps: the initial step is to determine eye-analogue
pixels so that the undesirable pixels are removed completely from the frame.
segmentation operation is carried out each individual eye-analogue segment as a
candidate of one of the eyes. In addition to that the set of rules is executed
to examine any possible pair of eyes.
As soon as the eyes are determined, then this technique computes
the face area
as a rectangle which are regulated by a set of functions to show that the potential
face is detected, normalized, well oriented and at a fixed size.
Next, the face
area is verified utilizing a back propagation neural network.
to approach it is applied a cost function to make the final
success rate that is reported reaches 94%, tested even in frames with a lot of human faces. Those
methods perform in an efficient way when inputs are simpler. But, how about in
the case of a human wearing glasses?
To answer this
question we take into account other features that candle such problems. For
at above sections there are approaches that detect faces as textures or just by
the color of the skin thus choosing the
appropriate color model is important. A good color model is the RGB or HSV that
is used widely in this area of face detection through human skin marqeus
PAPER 112 chose the succeeding parameters.
Parameter 1.0 Parameter
and Parameter 2.0 have been utilized to
detect pixels in the frame that contain skin color. Nevertheless, these
approaches themselves do not have a good performance in detecting the face due
to the variations of the skin color which can be changed dramatically when the
light conditions that hit the subjects changes as well.
algorithm is preferred to be combined with other techniques such as structure
and geometry or even local symmetry.
Modeled combining approaches
techniques and attempting to determine the subject’s face as a function.
Trying to figure out a
propel model for every subject’s face is not easy task, different physiological
characteristics are defined independently. For instance the
subject’s face can be divided into sub-categories such as the eyes, mouth, nose
and face contour. There is also the possibility that the face template can be
constructed by edges, but it is not so convenient as the techniques are
restricted to faces that are towards the camera and with no occurred occlusion.
From the other side it is observed that a face can be also represented as an
outline. Some models perceive the relation between face regions as the level of
The level of
required patterns are measured with the input frames to estimate the
similarities or dissimilarities between frames trying to avoid false positive
and false negative in order to detect the subject’s faces.
can be applied straightforward, but it’s insufficient for face detection.
Because the performance is poor when it comes to pose variation, shape and
scale. In any case there is a proposal
to solve these issues, one of them is deformable models.
techniques are acquired from the instances that are collected in the frames.
Commonly these techniques rely on different segments such as machine learning
and statistical analysis seeking in the frames for physiological characteristics of a subject’s
face. In this group particular approaches are based on a probabilistic network.
Studies show that a feature vector of the face in the frame is a variable that
indicates the probability of belonging to a certain face or not. An additional
method worth mentioning is the discriminant function which is used to determine
among face and non-face classes. Such approaches are also utilized in feature
extraction process for face recognition algorithms. The examination of such
approaches is discussed in further details in the sections below. However, some
of the important tools or approaches are:
Eigenface-based developed by Sirovich
and Kirby Marques paper 101, 56 that
built a well organized approach that would represent subject’s faces by
utilizing the so called Principal Component Analysis or PCA. The aim of this
method was straightforward, where a subject’s face is represented as a
coordinate system whose vectors are named eigenpictures. In the following years
there was an improvement by Turk and Pentland developing the so called
eigenface-based technique for recognition algorithms. Marques paper 110.
Distribution-based. The algorithms proposed Marques paper Sung
106 were designed mostly for patter detection or object detection. The way
this method works is by collecting an adequate number of frames for the pattern
that we are interested in and make sure that all sources of frame variation
that are desired to be handle are covered.
Afterwards a feature space need to be selected
and must show a distribution of all allowable frames appearances in its pattern
class. By applying that, the system matches all potential frames against the
distribution-based canonical face template.
Eventually, to identify instances of a desired pattern class from a
background frame pattern it is used a trained classifier, this is achieved thanks to the distance measurements between
the input pattern and distribution based one in the most appropriate feature
space. Representation of facial patterns
defining the subspace are made possible by PCA and Fisher’s Discriminant
Networks. A considerable amount of pattern recognition problems have had a god
performance rate some of them are character recognition, object recognition,
etc. With that
being said this approach can be utilized also in face detection in various
ways. Marques paper Sung 93 state that prior researchers have used NN to
discover and examine the face and non-face patterns. Where the detection issue
is determined as a two-class problem. From that perspective the ultimate problem
was how to classify the “frames not
including subject’s faces” class. Another
use of neural networks is in
classification of patterns utilizing distance measurements to find a
discriminant function marques paper 106. Although, there are many attempts to
balance the boundary between face and non-face frames by utilizing a limited
productive algorithm marques paper 91.
.Support Vector Machines. This approach
is based on linear classifiers that has
the tendency to maximize the margin among the decision hyperplane and the
instances in the training set. With that being said a well defined hyperplane
should minimize the classification error at its best from the unrevealed test
patterns. The first use of this classifier was by Osuna et al. marques
paper 87 in face detection.
.Sparse Network of Winnows. SNoWs were initially utilized by Yang et al. 118
for detection. Basically they determined a sparse network of two target nodes
or with other words linear units, one of them was appointed for face patterns
and the other for the nonface patterns. Sparse Network of Winnows has a progressive
learnt feature space and the new labeled cases served as positive instance for
one target and as a negative instance for the not yet used target. The
performance was pretty promising and at the same time very efficient.
Classifiers. This algorithm is based on object recognition as described by Schneiderman and Kanade marques paper 96. The
probability of a subject’s face is
calculated in the frame by measuring the frequency of patterns over the training
frames that occur. The Naive Bayes Classifier defines joint statistics of local
appearance and estimate the localization of the face as well as the statistics
of local appearance and localization in the visual world. This technique had a
very good success rate with good outcome on faces that are towards the camera
during the face detection process.
.Hidden Markov Model. The use of this statistical algorithm is mostly for face
detection problems. Building a proper model so the outcome of this probability
to be convincing can be very challenging. This model works with the facial
features that are interpreted as strips of pixels and the probabilistic transition
from one state to another are basically the borders among the pixel strips. As
in Naive Bayes Classifiers the same rule
applies also here in Hidden Markov Model where they are used together with
other approaches in order a detection algorithm to be built.
.Information-Theoretical Approach. In
order to model contextual constraints of a subject’s face pattern or correlated
feature is utilized the Markov Random Fields (MRF) as it increases the
discrimination among classes looking if a frame has a face or not using the divergence from Kullback–Leibler.
Thus comes the utilization of the algorithm in the face detection.
.Inductive Learning. The algorithm was
widely applied in face detection. In the same category fall also Quinlan’s C4.5
or Mitchell’s FIND-S that are utilized for the same purpose MARQUES PAPER 32,
3.3 Face tracking
of the face recognition algorithms have
video sequence as the input. The idea behind these systems is not only to detect particular faces but at the same time
tracking them. With that being said we can comprehend that tracking falls into the category of a motion estimation
problem. To perform such a process there are different methods for example
there is the feature tracking, model-based tracking, head tracking, image-based
tracking and so on. There is a variety of ways that these algorithms can be
classified 125: – .Head tracking where the head can be
tracked as a whole, or particular
physiological characteristics that of course can be tracked individually. – To
get more advance on this process there are the Two dimensional and Three
dimensional system tracking. The 2D algorithm outputs a frame
the face is traced. While the 3D algorithm, from the other side, carries out a 3D modeling of the subject’s face. The 3D
algorithm outperforms the 2D because it allows for proper orientation variations and
of a face tracking process is attempting
to locate a given face in an image.
Afterwards, calculates the dissimilarities among frames to update the location
subject’s face in the frame. During this process there occur a lot of
challenges that must be faced for example partial occlusions, variance in illumination,
the speed of computation and when the human face undergoes deformations due to
facial expression. A popular algorithm in face tracking is worth mentioning the
et al. in MARQUES
PAPER 33. Most of the cases the human face is represented as a state vector
in the central position of the frame surrounded with a rectangle. Any potential
new faces that comes into the frame are assessed by a Kalman estimator. During
the tracking process if a face was already in one of the previous frames then that frame is used a model or template by
Kalman estimator, at the meantime the region is evaluated by a SSD algorithm
after the evaluation is done then the measured
color information is inserted into the
Kalman estimator and it certainly approximate the face region and afterwards
the state vector is updated with the included face that we are tracking. The
output is pretty impressive when there are a considerable amount of faces in
the frame or even when there is a change in the color due to the light conditions.
White sand and warm water are closer than you think. When winter is cold, this is perfect and sun kisses are one of the places to escape. No passport required1. Sanu Juan, Futurro RicoWelcome guests to more than 100 hotels, 4,000 restaurants that cook and 107 tourists are open to viewers, there is something to think about returning to San Juan to Maria. Add to that the 16th-century stunning beach and colonial history, and you have a trip attribute connected to relax the tropical holiday with a cultural holiday. They are lonely beach walks in the lonely morning (Ocean Park Beach and Isla Verde Beach are local favorites) and your evening spent on paving the streets and decorating the candy-colored buildings of the old city. History fans will not miss the Fort San Felipe del Morro (“El Morro” for the local people), at the edge of a triangle on a 16th-century stronghold of a castle.Eat: Alcapurrias, bacalaitos, empanadillas: Do yourself a favor and get familiar with the popular Puerto Rican street food name before the trip, so you’ll be ready to attack the food truck at the time you landed. Choose from many vendors in old San Juan, or if you are ready to explore, then drive around the famous Piano for 30 minutes on its true street food. For an eclectic variety of options, many go 23, the food truck croquettes discipline a Donat poke (from lote23.com, $ 4) to serve everything from the bowl to a compilation.Welcome: Like San Juan, The Gallery Inn is an appealing blend of the old world and a beautiful tropical holiday. Originally built in the seventeenth century, the Sarayakhana is an (actually, their 19th) rustic garden rust, industrial studios, fountains, a music room (see reception for concert hours), a swimming pool with waterfalls and 27 guest rooms. Do not miss wine decks, including the panoramic view of the old San Juan (thegalleryinn.com, starting at $ 175).Easily Messi (three and a half hours flight), Orlando (four hours flight), New York City (five hours flight)2. Sunbury Island, FloridaThe sea is undoubtedly the main attraction of Sanibel, and when some of the top competitors such as the beach, Lighthouse Beach, Bomman Beach and Blind Pass Beach have all the astral options. If you choose any place, you can be sure that it will be treated with beautiful white sand and cool turquoise water. To go to this water, use the Kayak for the rest of the day included Tarpon Bay Explorers, which included a Kayak tour with a naturist witch wading bird and mysterious underwater shade mangrove forest (paddling through tarponbayexplorers.com will explain runs run from $ 30). The original Italian ice cream Pinocchio is famous for its taste inspired by a trip to the island, a local organization islands (Key-Lime Hurricane, Dirty Bali Dollar) and Animal Cookie Company Inspired by each blade (pinocchiosicecream.com, spoonfuls from $ 4)Eat: It does not seem to sound right for the “restaurant” island cow, it is also complete with an event, outdoor setting of a corn hole, photo ops, live music and yes, food. Shanker fritters from pancakes in the place of bustle (Sanibelislandcow.com, $ 10 to $ 8 in the morning breakfast from the entrance door) with a four-page menu, breakfast, lunch and dinner grounds. For a little silent, Gramma Dot sits in the Sanibel Marina jetty and likes all kinds of local seafood to crape soft shell grapes and shrimp. (sanibelmarina.com/gramma, starting from $ 16).Habitat: A state where filling the beachside hotel, Seahorse Cottages is a welcome exit. Located in a quiet residential neighborhood, cabinets collection, ranging from studios to two rooms ranging in size, feel comfortable and kinky, as almost a relative gave what you did from a guest house for the weekend. With the hospitality prevails and near Old Town Sanibel and beach chairs, visit the Chauffeur for free wagon wagons for free on your beach gear (behind seahorsecottages.com, only adult $ 265).Easily Messi (Miami, 2 hours and 45 minutes by car), Orlando (1-hour flight), New York (three hours flight)3. Kahlua, Oahu, HawaiiWinter months means many copies of Oahu’s most popular beaches, which if you want to sit in the sand and admire the world-class surfers, but also very dangerous for swimming for the Son of Man. The Kailua beach, however, is almost always cool and safe, it is ideal for everything from walking to small and soft swimming and kite surfing. When the water cools down, Kailua Beach Adventures fares a kayak and mokulua islands (kailuasailboards.com, rents starting at $ 59) miles or more rows. Conveniently, there are several shops in the city’s best Chávez rental shop after Kayak, leave your boat and enjoy an ice cream and delicious delights (islandsnow.com, ice shave from $ 3.50).EAT: On the street at the beach, the main street house of Budge has been providing tropical drinks and meat and fish food for 55 years. Feelings kitsch tiki-bar part, part tropical luxury (top of any tank after 4:30 pm) (buzzsoriginalsteakhouse.com, tickets from $ 11).Residence: Kailua and adjoining Lanike are mainly residential, so hotels and hotels are in between. Known viewers instead of choosing to rent a house, and luckily, there are plenty to choose from. You probably spend most of the time here on the beach, so stay away from the water.Easily Hiroliulu (20 minutes of the car), La (six hours flight), San Francisco (six hours flight).4. Hanalei, Kwai, HawaiiKaiya has managed to stay away from the radar compared to other Hawaiian islands, and this makes it so attractive that Halili, on the north coast, can be the closest thing to the nearest museum: green mountains, dense fields, and rain lift daily. Best beach for lounging over Hanalei Bay, null, swimming and golden sand, but if you want to leave the water, sign up for one of four hours ride with Rafa Nari Pali Riders. You will find the marine cave, snorkel and almost definitely dolphins (napaliriders.com, $ 160). Then, Hanakapi’ai is dry with an increase along the trail, which follows the Hanakapiai beach and the pretty beautiful Pali coastline, approximately four miles around the total.EAT: You can not go to Hawaii without grilled lunch tasting: A local specialty made of rice, two spoonfuls of macaroni salad and your choice of protein (often Teriyaki chicken or seared Ahi). The locals are reluctant to talk about food Hanalei Taro & Ross Co., a family that has been served in Taro Farming of the Valley of the Generation (5-5070A Kuhio Hwy City, Lunch $ 10), served at a restaurant owned. Eat the fish directly from the ocean, at the Hanily Dolphin Sushi Lounge (Hanalodolphin.com).Stay: In the informal Hanalei there are four studio apartments, just one block from Hanalei Bay, outdoor terraces with full kitchens and grill, so you can save money to cook your stay meal during the time. In addition, the mountain overlooks the picnic table’s perfect place to have coffee in your morning ($ 159 to hanaleiinn.com).Easily rescued: Honolulu (40 minutes flight), L.A. (Six hours flight), San Francisco (six hours flight).5. Laguna Bech, CaliforniaDone accurately, this SoCal beach city may be down on the amazing world. Finally, its primary citizens did not have any interesting talents or housewives, but in the early twentieth century, artists like William Wyndt and Lalita Perine struggled. The novel still plays an important role here, for the Laguna Art Museum, the gallery along the beach. And Laguna Playhouse. Still, the seven miles on the classic coast of California are a great attraction. The beaches are filled during the summer, but in the winter they are surprisingly free from the public, especially on the 1,000-step sea beach, on the 9th street (the name is not afraid of you, there are only more than 230 steps and lead from some beaches) For perfect, and opinion, golden cliffs and multi-million dollar houses, with some lift, Pure SoCal is the Laguna Canyon organic, after the beach You can sample the award winning wines, red and white in a comfortable room, dimly drunk barrel (lagunacanyonwinery.com, tastings purchase bottles with half-mile drive along Laguna Canyon Road for free from $ 2).Eating: When watching the sun underwater below the horizon from the background of Sapphire Laguna, you will understand why their happy hours call “sunset hours”. A reduced version of the menu, its lunch, and dinner offer to include a selection of alcoholic, beer and specialty cocktails, as well as a fair sample of appetizers and main courses. Be cautious with horse chips made from rosemary, sage and sea salt, they are so delicious working that you can easily organize them in a loop, even outside the actual sunset. Keep warm on a table near the fire in cooler months (sapphirelaguna.com, $ 4 to snake, a ticket from $ 11).Stay with you: Spanish colonial architecture, green gardens and palm trees on land, Casa Lañuna Hotel and Spa South California Performance Each of the 23 rooms is designed with unique and vivid, Moroccan tiles and bright clothes. Start the day with complimentary breakfast, then only choose between the hot spots (casalaguna.com, starting from $ 179), hot pool, on-site spa or beach.Easily SSC: L.A. (About 50 miles on car, car an hour), San Diego (73 miles, about 90 minutes by car), Chicago (four and half an hour flight).6. Great Isle, LouisianaIn winter, the barrier from the Bay of Louisiana is reduced to 1,600 permanent residents of the island’s population from the summer peak of 14,000. But the temperature is still warm enough for sunset, and you can do it without the crowd. Fishermen love this island because of the surrounding waters, 280 species of fish and large sheep in the Grand Isle of the Park are fishing in their cool water. Those who do not panic with the stumble in the Big Bank, they go to the beach. While the 2010 oil spill lasted seven miles long this year, a stretched three-mile of golden sand off all beaches on this island was recently re-opened with a full deployment soon after the intensive cleaning efforts.Diet: What is the specialist of most of the Grand All? – Fresh fish, especially catfish and trout. So enjoy a Sandwich and Fish Po’Boys Tarmac Restaurant (starfishmenu.com, 3027 Hwy City 1, 985 / 787-2711, Sandwich from $ 5.25) as a local.Stay Cajun Tide Beach Resort, no fills, and no-frills is not beside the beach and fishermen supplies (cajuntidebeachresort.com, $ 50) with a live cleaning fish, mosquito nets, and enough fires to prepare guest dinners for the Cajun tide beach resort.New Orleans Flight (109 miles of the car, nearly two hours), Baton Rouge (160 miles of the car about three hours), Chicago (three hours flight from New Orleans), Detroit (four and a half hours – A: easy to escape from New Orleans).7. San Diego, CaliforniaSan Diego is a small town with big ambitions: the Gaslamp Quarter, which has been reworked with its shops and restaurants, feels the city, but the crashing waves of the nearby Pacific Ocean create an atmosphere that is the common American beach city. However, the best way to see it is to hit the boardwalk. At the Pacific Ocean, known for its extensive stretches of sand and perfect waves for surfing, rent a cheap rented beach cruise and travel to the South Mission Beach and travel a half-mile, all the local characters going all the way on the road: extraordinary costume skaters, holiday families Hippies’ from the 60s and even a habit that always seems to make a look (cheap- rentals.com, renting $ 6 per hour) to random people.To eat Egg Kono, the huge breakfast burrito with sausage of the surf clubs and the fresh avocado, beside the beach it is outside the door and near the corner (konoscafe.com, is a rite such as San Diego, 704 Garnet Avenue, 858 / 483-1669, breakfast from $ 3.50 ).Survive The festive fog sounds in the area … until you see furry carpets, wood-paneled walls, and sighing gates. Modern boxy glass room (from t23hotel.com $ 249) is a welcome separation from Tez Store furniture and a modern restaurant and the tower23, with the bar filled with neutral tones seen in the sea.Easily SSC: L.A. (120 miles, about two hours by car), Phoenix (one hour flight), Seattle (two-and-a-half hours flight).8. ST Egypt Siemens, GeorgiaOne of the four islands that make up the Golden Islands of Georgia (the island is just a barrier to the coast), Saint Simmons is known for its covered oak trees, algae, historic monuments, white sand beaches and 99 hole centenarians are permitted on the island of Golf, but life here Unrealistic speed you want to stay away from everything with an engine. Instead, a sea beach cruiser bicycle passes along the road through Ocean Moss Surf Kong and crosses the road between King and Prince Beach, Planting, Lighthouse and Church of Christ, originally built in 1820, 14 miles on the route, and has many stops to compliment the scenery, so at least half a day ( 912 / 638-5225, rent $ 15)EAT: Owned by the same family for 30 years, Freddie’s seafood grill takes pride in generations to generation and generations of his friendly friends pass down here. Except for some compulsory chicken and meat dishes, virtually everything in the menu is based on seafood. Choose what you choose, shrimp and semolina to be sure to start with an order, home specialty (crabdaddysgrill.com, starting from $ 17).Stay tuned: St. Simons a caucus is so valuable that village ins and pub were built around them; No tree was needed to be cut during the construction. This place is charming: the reception area is a restored 30-cabin, English pub is decorated with a large stone fireplace, and 28 rooms are named as a historical figure with significance on each island, as Sid Liner, poet, novelist and composer (Grinappop .com, $ 135).Easily to escape: Savanna (84 miles, by car nearly two hours), Atlanta (282 miles, about five hours by car), Charleston, SC (193 miles, about four hours by car)9. Play Nandja, AlabamaMost people use different words, each with different ones, different ones, different ones, different ones, different ones. Alabama people believe that its beaches on the Gulf coast are the most beautiful in the country. Sand is 95% quartz, which means it is white with snow and sunlight and water is available in Florida as well as blue. Blue-mile Orange Beach needs your everything: lots of places to spread your beach blankets and restaurants by hot water, sand. Dolphins love both of them on the dolphin cruise Cold Mill Fleet Guarantee on the ship (dolphincruises.com, 20 $ to 90 minute tour).Feed: Gulf Shore Steamer is one of the rare distinctions of this part: a shellfish joint in the sea that is not all fry in the scene, people here does not play here. On the contrary, fresh fish, shrimp, crabs, and tastes are gray or summer and always delicious (Glossshoresmart.com, initial $ 15).Accommodation: Beach Resort from Perdido The 346-room beachfront ($ 94 perdidobeachresort.com) is itself a community, four restaurants, an indoor/outdoor pool, tub and tennis court.Easy to Associate: Mobile, Ala (54 miles, about 90 minutes by car), Pensacola, Flow. (29 miles, about 1 hour by car), St. Louis (four hours flight on mobile).10. Galveston, TexasThis access point is located in South Texas, smart travelers, the crowded East Beach and West Beach or the Galveston Island State Park, which is also more head-to-head (which is attacked in March for spring break). There are large expanses of sand that are perfect for trolling for both shells or sunbathing. Once out of the water, the historic Strand district, near Stroud Street, will have to make a stop demand between 25 and 11. The 1800’s building has been recently restored and is now home to many restaurants filled with restaurants, antique shops, and fine arts and photography. The city is attracting families with swimming pools, swimming pools (schlitterbahn.com/gal, $ 26), which is a huge tub with 30,000 people and water slides for adults, swimming pools, swimming pools,To eat A few blocks from the coast to the Inland Post-office street, where you can find authentic gumbo and a cold rice Little Dad’s gumbo bar (littledaddysgumbobar.com, 2105 Post Office St., GAMO from $ 10.50), is also known as the best place to get found in the island of Gambia, or service Corinth Rudi & Paco’s Latin Impact (rudyandpaco.com 2028 Postoffice St., ceviche $ 17).Accommodation: Seeing quay, the Shelter House house is 42 rooms old school is less than a 10-minute walk from a nautical atmosphere and city center (harborhousepier21.com, $ 102).Easy to escape: Houston (53 miles on the car are about one hour), Austin (212 miles of the car around four hours), Denver (two hours flight to Houston), Chicago (three-hour flight to Houston).